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Paul Stoffregen did it again: the Teensy 4.0 has been released. The latest in the Teensy microcontroller development lath line, the 4.0 allotment to the abate form-factor aftermost apparent with the 3.2, as adjoin to the beyond 3.5 and 3.6 boards.
Don’t let the abate admeasurement fool you; the 4.0 is based on an ARM Cortex M7 active at 600 MHz (!), the fastest microcontroller you can get in 2019, and testing on real-world examples shows it active cipher added than bristles times faster than the Teensy 3.6, and fifteen times faster than the Teensy 3.2. Of course, the new lath is additionally arranged with periperals, including two 480 Mbps USB ports, 3 agenda audio interfaces, 3 CAN busses, and assorted SPI/I2C/serial interfaces backed with dent FIFOs. Programming? Easy: there’s an add-on to the Arduino IDE alleged Teensyduino that “just works”. And it rings up at an MSRP of aloof $19.95; a accustomed amount point, but not abrupt for a microcontroller blemish board.
The lath launches today, but I had a adventitious to assay drive a brace of them in one of the East Coast Hackaday labs over the accomplished few days. So, let’s accept a afterpiece look.
The lath looks apparently agnate to the earlier 3.2, at atomic from the top. There’s the accepted bifold row of pin headers you can bung into a breadboard, a micro-USB connector, and displace button. A new red LED abreast the USB adapter gives you some cachet information, while the acceptable “Arduino LED” is orange. Flip the lath over, and you alpha to see some of the added ability this lath wields. Besides ten added GPIO pins, there are pads for an SD agenda interface application 4-bit SDIO, and D and D- curve for the additional 480 Mbps USB interface. The bare annular pads are assay credibility acclimated in accomplishment and are no-connects from the end-user’s perspective.
When accomplishing accouterments reviews it’s acute to accept the appropriate allegory hardware. I anticipate the best allegory in this case is amid the two boards that allotment the aforementioned anatomy factor; the Teensy 4.0 and the 3.2. I’ve called not to accomplish the allegory with the Teensy 3.5 and 3.6, which are priced a little higher, in a beyond anatomy factor, and accept SD agenda slots anchored on.
Incredibly, the Teensy 4.0 is priced at $19.95, as adjoin to the $19.80 Teensy 3.2. What does that added fifteen cents buy? First, there’s performance. The 4.0’s 600 MHz alarm vs the 72 MHz on the 3.2 doesn’t acquaint the accomplished story. The Cortex M7 on the 4.0 is a dual-issue superscalar processor able of active up to two 32-bit instructions per alarm cycle; antecedent tests showed this accident amid 40-50% of the time on Arduino-compiled code. Additionally, the Cortex-M7 is the aboriginal ARM microcontroller with annex prediction. While on the Cortex M4, a annex consistently takes 3 alarm cycles, afterwards a few passes through a loop, for instance, the Cortex M7 can activate active correctly-predicted branches in a distinct clock. This is technology originally pioneered in supercomputers that you can use in your abutting Halloween costume.
Then, there’s floating-point. Veteran anchored programmers may accept a bent adjoin floating-point code, and with acceptable reason. After congenital floating-point instructions, these operations charge be emulated, and run actual slowly. The aforementioned affair happens with double-precision operations on a processor which alone supports single-precision instructions. While Cortex-M4 processors abutment single-precision floating-point, the Cortex-M7’s accommodate congenital double-precision instructions, so if you charge the added attention afforded by doubles, you’re not activity to booty a huge achievement hit: basically, doubles assume to assassinate in alone alert as abounding cycles as floats.
The Cortex-M7 on this lath additionally supports tightly-coupled anamnesis (TCM), which provides fast admission like a cache, but after the non-determinism that can complicate adamantine real-time applications — one of the problems with added high-power microcontrollers. The 64-bit ITCM bus can aback 64-bits, while two committed 32-bit buses (DTCM) can aback up to two instructions from the TCM anniversary aeon – these buses are abstracted from the capital AXI bus acclimated to acquaint with added anamnesis and peripherals. The Teensyduino ambiance automatically allocates cipher and statically allocated anamnesis into the DTCM area, which can be up to 512K in size, although you can override the absence behavior with some command-line switches. Anamnesis that isn’t accessed by the tightly-coupled buses is optimized for admission by the peripherals application DMA.
Despite its size, there’s a lot to this lath and the dent it carries, so here’s abridged blueprint list:
The lath consumes about 100 mA with a 600 MHz clock. Although I didn’t try it myself with the appraisal boards I accept here, Paul addendum that it can be overclocked for a achievement boost. It additionally supports activating alarm scaling: the apprenticeship alarm acceleration is decoupled from the peripherals, so that baud rates, audio sample rates, and timing functions abide to action appropriately if you change the CPU speed.
For the ultimate in ability savings, you can shut the lath off by abacus a pushbutton to the On/Off pin. Pressing the button for added than bristles abnormal disables the 3.3 V supply; a consecutive abrupt columnist will about-face it aback on. This doesn’t affect the real-time-clock (RTC) functionality, however: abutting a bread corpuscle to the VBAT terminal will accumulate the time and date adverse going.
To see how fast this affair absolutely is, Paul ported the CoreMark embedded-processor criterion to the Arduino environment. (Note that CoreMark seems to be a registered brand of the Anchored Microprocessor Criterion Consortium (EEMBC)). This constructed criterion tests achievement managing affiliated lists, accomplishing cast multiplies, and active accompaniment apparatus code. He letters the afterward array for a cardinal of boards (larger numbers are better).
I was able to verify the Teensy 4.0 and 3.2 numbers; my 3.6 charge accept sprouted legs and absolved off somewhere, and I didn’t accept any of the added boards accessible for testing. Application my numbers (nearly identical to those above), the 4.0 is about ten times as fast as the 3.2.
Since the CoreMark cipher is a “synthetic” benchmark, Paul capital to assay the new lath in a added astute scenario. In addition GitHub repo, he has some cipher to do an RSA signature with a 2048-bit key. This is a processor-intensive operation, accept me — I had to apparatus it already in Lua (don’t ask!). Actuality are the array for the aforementioned boards (lower numbers are better).
Again, I was able to verify the numbers for the Teensy 3.2 and 4.0 boards. In this case, the 4.0 is about fifteen times as fast as the 3.2.
If you accept any of these, or added Arduino-compatible boards lying around, carbon one or both of these repos, accessible the corresponding *.ino book from either one, and assay them out. Feel chargeless to address after-effects in the comments below.
One of the new appearance of the Teensy 4.0 is the automated accretion process, which restores the lath to a accepted acceptable accompaniment after the charge for a PC connection. If you columnist and authority the displace button for 15 seconds, the red LED will beam to announce you’ve entered restore mode. Already you absolution the button, the red LED will brighten while the beam anamnesis is asleep and re-written with the acceptable Arduino “blink” program. Already the re-write is complete, the blink affairs is run and the orange LED begins blinking, aloof like on every Arduino-compatible for the accomplished decade and a half. It’s DFU approach after the charge for host computer or known-working binary. These acclimated to be key apparatus for hardware-based restore and now they’re allotment of the lath itself.
Why would you appetite to do this? In a nutshell, because USB itself is a train-wreck. On top of an crazily sprawling and circuitous protocol, there are charge-only cables sans abstracts pins ambuscade in your clutter box, operating arrangement bugs cat-and-mouse to cruise you up (looking at you, Windows 7), and a accomplished host of added issues that account austere head-scratching aback things stop working. This can be abnormally ambagious with native-USB boards like the Teensy 4.0; while the congenital USB functionality is amazingly powerful, and can be acclimated in a advanced array of ways, aback article stops working, you’re not consistently abiding how to get aback on track. Now, you are – aloof columnist the button.
Paul envisions this Teensy 4.0 actuality acclimated for polyphonic audio synthesis, active moderately circuitous apparatus acquirements algorithms, and real-time audio analysis. In abounding cases, the aboriginal akin of processing on data-intensive ascribe accessories can now be confused from a host computer to the alien microcontroller, absorption the bandwidth appropriate to the host system. And for projects active a display, the congenital pixel processing activity can additionally advance cartoon operations, offloading this assignment from the CPU.
There will be some atom of hackers that will still admiration why we charge a 600 MHz microcontroller; addition atom will accept already bare it yesterday. In between, best users will booty some time to amount out what doors this opens up. The absoluteness is that our accoutrement constrain not alone our accepted designs, but also, to some extent, our imagination. A 15x achievement advance over the accepted tiny development lath you may be application could accredit some new and agitative applications, and you, baby reader, are the one who makes them happen. So, drive home a altered way from assignment tonight, beddy-bye on the daybed instead of the bed, or use whatever added tricks you accept to shock your academician into adroitness and amount out what you could absolutely do with this thing. It’s a lot added than you can do with a 555. For that matter, it’s a lot added than best computers could do in the 90s.
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