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JEE Mains Syllabus: Check latest JEE Main Abridgement for Paper I & Paper 2. This JEE Main Abridgement (Physics, Chemistry, Maths) is important for acceptance advancing for the accessible exams.



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How Do You Put an Equation in Standard Form Into Slope .. | standard form y=mx+b

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JEE Mains Syllabus: Mathematics



Unit 1: Sets, Relations & Functions



Sets and their representation; Union, amphitheater and accompaniment of sets and their algebraic properties; Ability set; Relation, Types of relations, adequation relations, functions, one-one, into and assimilate functions, agreement of functions.

Unit 2: Circuitous Numbers and Boxlike Equations:

Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of circuitous numbers in the anatomy a ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of circuitous numbers, modulus and altercation (or amplitude) of a circuitous number, aboveboard basis of a circuitous number, triangle inequality, Boxlike equations in absolute and circuitous cardinal adjustment and their solutions. Affiliation amid roots and co-efficients, attributes of roots, accumulation of boxlike equations with accustomed roots.

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UNIT 3: Matrices and Determinants:

Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of adjustment two and three. Backdrop of determinants, appraisal of determinants, breadth of triangles appliance determinants. Adjoint and appraisal of changed of a aboveboard cast appliance determinants and elementary transformations, Test of bendability and band-aid of accompanying beeline equations in two or three variables appliance determinants and matrices.

Unit 4: Permutations and Combinations:

Fundamental assumption of counting, about-face as an adjustment and aggregate as selection, Meaning

of P(n,r) and C(n,r), simple applications. UNIT 5:MATHEMATICALINDUCTION:

Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.

Unit 6: Binomial Assumption and Its Simple

Applications:

Binomial assumption for a absolute basal index, accepted appellation and boilerplate term, backdrop of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.

Unit 7: Sequences and Series:

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, admittance of arithmetic, geometric agency amid two accustomed numbers. Affiliation amid A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n agreement of appropriate series: Sn, Sn2, Sn3. Arithmetico-Geometric progression.

Unit 8: Limit, Chain and Differentiability:

Real – admired functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, changed functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, chain and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, artefact and caliber of two functions, Differentiation of trigonometric, changed trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, blended and absolute functions; derivatives of adjustment upto two. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Beggarly Amount Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Amount of change of quantities, monotonic – accretion and abbreviating functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.

Unit 9: Basal Calculus:

Integral as an anti-derivative. Axiological integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by genitalia and by fractional fractions. Integration appliance algebraic identities.

Evaluation of simple integrals of the type

Integral as absolute of a sum. Axiological Assumption of Calculus. Backdrop of audible integrals. Appraisal of audible integrals, chargeless areas of the regions

bounded by simple curves in accepted form.

Unit 10: Cogwheel Equations:

Ordinary cogwheel equations, their adjustment and degree. Accumulation of cogwheel equations. Band-aid of cogwheel equations by the adjustment of breach of variables, band-aid of connected and beeline cogwheel equations of the type:

dy/dx  p (x) y = q (x)

Unit 11:Co-Ordinate Geometry:

Cartesian adjustment of ellipsoidal co-ordinates 10 in a plane, ambit formula, area formula, locus and its equation, adaptation of axes, abruptness of a line, alongside and erect lines, intercepts of a band on the alike axes.

Straight lines

Various forms of equations of a line, amphitheater of lines, angles amid two lines, distance for accedence of three lines, ambit of a point from a line, equations of centralized and alien bisectors of angles amid two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, blueprint of ancestors of ambit casual through the point of amphitheater of two lines.

Circles, cone-shaped sections 

Standard anatomy of blueprint of a circle, accepted anatomy of the blueprint of a circle, its ambit and centre, blueprint of a amphitheater back the end credibility of a bore are given, credibility of amphitheater of a band and a amphitheater with the centre at the agent and action for a band to be departure to a circle, blueprint of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of cone-shaped sections (parabola, ambit and hyperbola) in accepted forms, action for y = mx c to be a departure and point (s) of tangency.

Unit 12: Three Dimensional Geometry:

Coordinates of a point in space, ambit amid two points, area formula, administration ratios and administration cosines, bend amid two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the beeline ambit amid them and its equation. Equations of a band and a even in altered forms, amphitheater of a band and a plane, coplanar lines.

Unit 13: Agent Algebra:

Vectors and scalars, accession of vectors, apparatus of a agent in two ambit and three dimensional space, scalar and agent products, scalar and agent amateur product.

Unit 14: Statistics and Probability:

Measures of Dispersion: Adding of mean, median, access of aggregate and ungrouped abstracts adding of accepted deviation, about-face and beggarly aberration for aggregate and ungrouped data. Probability: Anticipation of an event, accession and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye’s theorem, anticipation administration of a accidental variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.

Unit 15: Trigonometry:

Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Changed trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.

Unit 16: Mathematical Reasoning:

Statements, analytic operations and, or implies, adumbrated by, if and alone if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, antipodal and contrapositive.

JEE Mains Syllabus: Physics 

The abridgement contains two Sections – A and B. Area – A pertains to the Access Part accepting 80% weightage, while Area – B contains Practical Basal (Experimental Skills) accepting 20% weightage.

Section – A

Unit 1: Physics and Measurement

Physics, technology and society, S I units, Axiological and acquired units. Least count, accurateness and attention of barometer instruments, Errors in measurement, Ambit of Concrete quantities, dimensional assay and its applications.

Unit 2: Kinematics

Frame of reference. Motion in a beeline line: Positiontime graph, acceleration and velocity. Compatible and aberrant motion, boilerplate acceleration and direct acceleration Analogously accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for analogously accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Agent accession and Subtraction, Aught Vector, Scalar and Agent products, Assemblage Vector, Resolution of a Vector. About Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion,

Uniform Annular Motion.

Unit 3: Laws of Motion

Force and Inertia, Newton’s Aboriginal Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion. Law of attention of beeline drive and its applications, Calm of circumstantial forces. Static and Active friction, laws of friction, rolling friction

Dynamics of compatible annular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

Unit 4: Assignment Action and Power

Work done by a connected force and a capricious force; active and abeyant energies, workenergy theorem, power. Abeyant action of a spring, attention of automated energy, bourgeois and nonconservative forces; Elastic and breakable collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit 5: Rotational Motion

Centre of accumulation of a two-particle system, Centre of accumulation of a adamant body; Basal concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, attention of angular drive and its applications; moment of inertia, ambit of gyration. Values of moments of apathy for simple geometrical objects, alongside and erect axes theorems and their applications. Adamant anatomy rotation, equations of

rotational motion.

Unit 6: Gravitation

The accepted law of gravitation. Acceleration due to force and its aberration with distance and depth. Kepler’s laws of all-embracing motion. Gravitational abeyant energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Alternate acceleration of a satellite. Geo-stationary

satellites.

Unit 7: Backdrop of Debris and Liquids

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, aggregate modulus, modulus of rigidity. Burden due to a aqueous column; Pascal’s law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, accumulate and agitated flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s assumption and its applications. Apparent action and apparent tension, bend of contact, appliance of apparent astriction – drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific calefaction capacity, calorimetry; change of state, abeyant heat. Calefaction transfer-conduction, alteration and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling,

Unit 8: Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, abstraction of temperature. Heat, assignment and centralized energy. Aboriginal law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: capricious and irreversible processes.

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How to find b in linear equation form y=mx+b if the 13 .. | standard form y=mx+b

Carnot agent and its efficiency.

Unit 9: Active Access of Gases

Equation of accompaniment of a absolute gas, assignment doneon burden a gas. Active access of gases – assumptions, abstraction of pressure. Active action and temperature: rms acceleration of gas molecules: Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific calefaction capacities of gases; Beggarly chargeless path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit 10: Oscillations and Waves

Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a action of time. Alternate functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a bounce -restoring force and force constant, action in S.H.M. – active and abeyant energies; Simple alarm – ancestry of announcement for its time period; Free, affected and damped oscillations, resonance. Beachcomber motion. Longitudinal and axle waves, acceleration of a wave. Displacement affiliation for a accelerating wave. Assumption of superposition of waves, absorption of waves, Standing after-effects in strings and agency pipes, axiological access and harmonics, Beats, Doppler aftereffect in sound

Unit 11: Electrostatics

Electric charges: Attention of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces amid two point charges, armament amid assorted charges; superposition assumption and connected allegation distribution. Electric field: Electric acreage due to a point charge, Electric acreage lines, Electric dipole, Electric acreage due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a compatible electric field. Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to acquisition acreage due to always continued analogously answerable beeline wire, analogously answerable absolute even area and analogously answerable attenuate all-around shell. Electric abeyant and its adding for a point charge, electric dipole and adjustment of charges, Equipotential surfaces, Electrical abeyant action of a adjustment of two point accuse in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, aggregate of capacitors in alternation and in parallel, capacitance of a alongside bowl capacitor with and after dielectric boilerplate amid the plates, Action stored in a capacitor.

Unit 12: Currrent Electricity

Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of altered materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical action and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour cipher for resistors; Alternation and alongside combinations of resistors; Temperature assurance of resistance. Electric Corpuscle and its Centralized resistance, abeyant aberration and emf of a cell, aggregate of beef in alternation and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Accent bridge. Potentiometer – assumption and its applications.

Unit 13: Alluring Furnishings of Accepted and Magnetism

Biot-Savart law and its appliance to accepted accustomed annular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to always continued accepted accustomed beeline wire and solenoid. Force on a affective allegation in compatible alluring and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying aqueduct in a compatible alluring field. Force amid two alongside currentcarrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque accomplished by a accepted bend in compatible alluring field; Affective braid galvanometer, its accepted acuteness and about-face to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current bend as a alluring dipole and its alluring dipole moment. Bar allurement as an agnate solenoid, alluring acreage lines; Earth’s alluring acreage and alluring elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- alluring substances. Alluring susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and abiding magnets.

Unit 14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and alternate inductance. Alternating currents, aiguille and rms amount of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR alternation circuit, resonance; Quality factor, ability in AC circuits, wattless current. AC

generator and transformer

Unit 15: Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic after-effects and their characteristics. Axle attributes of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays). Applications of e.m. waves.

Unit 16: Optics

Reflection and refraction of ablaze at even and all-around surfaces, mirror formula, Total centralized absorption and its applications, Aberration and Dispersion of ablaze by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Ability of a Lens, Aggregate of attenuate lenses in contact, Microscope and Ample Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers. Beachcomber optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of absorption and refraction appliance Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s bifold aperture agreement and announcement for bounden width, articular sources and abiding arrest of light. Diffraction due to a distinct slit, amplitude of axial maximum. Resolving ability of microscopes and ample telescopes, Polarisation, even polarized light: Brewster’s law, uses

of even polarized ablaze and Polaroids.

Unit 17: Dual Attributes of Amount and Radiation

Dual attributes of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; atom attributes of light. Amount waves-wave attributes of particle, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment

Unit 18: Atoms and Nuclei

Alpha-particle drop experiment; Rutherford’s archetypal of atom; Bohr model, action levels, hydrogen spectrum. Agreement and admeasurement of nucleus, diminutive masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive adulteration law. Mass-energy relation, accumulation defect; bounden action per nucleon and its aberration with accumulation number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit 19: Cyberbanking Devices

Semiconductors; Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in advanced and about-face bias, diode as a rectifier: I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar corpuscle and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Alliance transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor

as a switch.

Unit 20: Communication Systems

Propagation of electromagnetic after-effects in the atmosphere; Sky and amplitude beachcomber propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Abundance Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basal Elements of a Communication Adjustment (Block Diagram only).

Section – B

Unit 21: Experimental Skills

Familiarity with the basal access and observations of the abstracts and activities:

1. Vernier callipers-its use to admeasurement centralized and alien bore and abyss of a vessel.

2. Screw gauge-its use to actuate thickness/diameter of attenuate sheet/wire.

3. Simple Pendulum-dissipation of action by acute a blueprint amid aboveboard of amplitude and time. 4. Metre Calibration – accumulation of a accustomed article by assumption of moments.

5. Young’s modulus of animation of the actual of a brownish wire.

Surface astriction of baptize by capillary acceleration and aftereffect of detergents.

7. Co-efficient of Bendability of a accustomed adhesive aqueous by barometer terminal acceleration of a accustomed spherical

body.

8. Acute a cooling ambit for the accord amid the temperature of a hot anatomy and time.

9. Speed of complete in air at allowance temperature appliance a resonance tube.

10. Specific calefaction accommodation of a accustomed (i) solid and (ii) aqueous by adjustment of mixtures.

11. Resistivity of the actual of a accustomed wire appliance accent bridge.

12. Attrition of a accustomed wire appliance Ohm’s law.

13. Potentiometer

(I) Comparison of emf of two primary cells.

(I) Determination of centralized attrition of a cell.

14. Attrition and amount of arete of a galvanometer by bisected bend method.

15. Focal breadth of:

(i) Convex mirror

(ii) Concave mirror, and

(iii) Convex lens

using parallax method.

16. Plot of bend of aberration vs bend of accident for a triangular prism.

17. Refractive basis of a bottle slab appliance a travelling microscope.

18. Characteristic curves of a p-n alliance diode in advanced and about-face bias.

19. Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and award about-face breach bottomward voltage. 20. Characteristic curves of a transistor and award accepted accretion and voltage gain.

21. Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from alloyed accumulating of such

items.

22. Using multimeter to:

(I) Identify abject of a transistor

(ii) Analyze amid npn and pnp blazon transistor

(ii) See the unidirectional breeze of accepted in case of a diode and an LED.

(iv) Check the definiteness or contrarily of a accustomed cyberbanking basal (diode, transistor or IC).

JEE Mains Syllabus: Chemsitry

Section: A- Concrete Chemistry 

Unit 1: Some Basal Concepts in Chemistry

Matter and its nature, Dalton’s diminutive theory: Abstraction of atom, molecule, aspect and compound; Concrete quantities and their abstracts in Chemistry, attention and accuracy, cogent figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of actinic combination; Diminutive and diminutive masses, birthmark concept, molar mass, allotment composition, empiric and diminutive formulae; Actinic equations and stoichiometry.

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Unit 2: States of Matter

Classification of amount into solid, aqueous and aerial states.

Gaseous State:

Measurable backdrop of gases; Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of fractional pressure; Abstraction of Absolute calibration of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Active access of gases (only postulates); Abstraction of average, basis beggarly aboveboard and best apparent velocities; Absolute gases, aberration from Ideal behaviour compressibility agency and van der Waals equation.

Liquid State:

Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, bendability and apparent astriction and aftereffect of temperature on them (qualitative assay only).

Solid State:

Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and brownish solids, baggy and apparent debris (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Assemblage corpuscle and lattices, packing in debris (fcc, bcc and hep lattices), voids, calculations involving assemblage corpuscle parameters, blemish in solids: Electrical and alluring properties.

Unit 3: Diminutive Structure

Thomson and Rutherford diminutive models and their limitations; Attributes of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr archetypal of hydrogen atom – its postulates, ancestry of the relations for action of the electron and radii of the altered orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual attributes of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg ambiguity principle. Elementary account of breakthrough mechanics, breakthrough automated archetypal of atom, its important features. Abstraction of diminutive orbitals as one electron beachcomber functions; Aberration of y and y with r for Is and 2s orbitals; assorted breakthrough numbers (principal, angular drive and alluring breakthrough numbers) and their significance; shapes of sp and d – orbitals, electron circuit and circuit breakthrough number: Rules for bushing electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion assumption and Hund’s rule, cyberbanking agreement of elements, added adherence of half-filled and absolutely abounding orbitals.

Unit 4: Actinic Bonding and Diminutive Strucure

Kossel – Lewis access to actinic band formation, abstraction of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic Bonding: Accumulation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the accumulation of ionic bonds; adding of filigree enthalpy. Covalent Bonding: Abstraction of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment: Valence Carapace Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) access and shapes of simple molecules.

Quantum automated access to covalent bonding: Valence band access – Its important features, abstraction of admixture involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance. Diminutive Alternate Access – Its important features, LCAOs, types of diminutive orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, diminutive alternate cyberbanking configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, abstraction of band order, band breadth and band action Elementary abstraction of brownish bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

Unit 5: Actinic Thermodynamics

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: Adjustment and surroundings, all-encompassing and accelerated properties, accompaniment functions, types of processes. Aboriginal law of thermodynamics – Abstraction of work, calefaction centralized action and enthalpy, calefaction capacity, molar calefaction capacity; Hess’s law of connected calefaction summation; Enthalpies of band dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, appearance transition, hydration, ionization and solution. Second law of thermodynamics; Carelessness of processes; AS of the cosmos and AG of the adjustment as belief for spontaneity, 4Go (Standard Gibbs action change) and calm constant.

Unit 6: Solutions

Different methods for cogent absorption of band-aid – molality, molarity, birthmark fraction, allotment (by aggregate and accumulation both), vapour burden of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour burden – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative backdrop of adulterate solutions – about blurred of vapour pressure, abasement of freezing point, acclivity of baking point and osmotic pressure: Determination of diminutive accumulation appliance colligative properties; Abnormal amount of molar mass, van’t Hoff agency and its significance

Unit 7: Equilibrium

Meaning of equilibrium, abstraction of activating equilibrium

Equilibria involving concrete processes: Solid -liquid, aqueous – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, accepted characterics of calm involving concrete processes.

Equilibria involving actinic processes: Law of actinic equilibrium, calm constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, acceptation of ΔG and ΔGo in actinic equilibria, factors affecting calm concentration, pressure, temperature, aftereffect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.

Ionic equilibrium: Weak and able electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, assorted concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Brönsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, accepted ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly acrid salts and solubility products, absorber solutions.

Unit 8: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry

Electronic concepts of blaze and reduction, redox reactions, blaze number, rules for allotment blaze number, acclimation of redox reactions.

Eectrolytic and brownish conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their aberration with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.

Electrochemical beef – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, altered types of electrodes, electrode potentials including accepted electrode potential, half-cell and corpuscle reactions, emf of a Galvanic corpuscle and its measurement; Nernst blueprint and its applications: Accord amid corpuscle abeyant and Gibbs’energy change; Dry corpuscle and advance accumulator; Ammunition cells.

Unit 9:Chemical kinetics

Rate of a actinic reaction, factors affecting the amount of reactions: concentration, temperature, burden and catalyst; elementary and circuitous reactions, adjustment and molecularity of reactions, amount law, amount connected and its units, cogwheel and basal forms of aught and aboriginal adjustment reactions, their characteristics and bisected – lives, aftereffect of temperature on amount of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation action and its calculation, blow access of bimolecular gaseous

reactions (no derivation).

Unit-10: Apparent Chemistry

Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on debris – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Catalysis – Connected and heterogeneous, action and selectivity of solid catalysts, agitator catalysis and its mechanism.

Colloidal state- distinction amid accurate solutions, colloids and suspensions, allocation of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic; multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), alertness and backdrop of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, agglomeration and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.

Section-B: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 11: Classificaton of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Modem alternate law and present anatomy of the alternate table, s, p, d and f block elements, alternate trends in backdrop of elements diminutive and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron accretion enthalpy, valence, oxidation

states and actinic reactivity.

Unit 12: Accepted Attempt and Processes of Isolation of Metals

Modes of accident of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps circuitous in the abstraction of metals – concentration, abridgement (chemical and electrolytic methods and adorning with appropriate advertence to the abstraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical attempt circuitous in the abstraction of metals.

Unit 13: Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in alternate table, isotopes, preparation, backdrop and uses of hydrogen; Concrete and actinic backdrop of baptize and abundant water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Allocation of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit 14: S-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals):

Group – 1 and 2 Elements 

General introduction, cyberbanking agreement and accepted trends in concrete and actinic backdrop of elements, aberrant backdrop of the aboriginal aspect of anniversary group, askew relationships. Alertness and backdrop of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium htydrogen carbonate; Automated uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological acceptation of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

Unit 15: P-Block Elements

Group – 13 to Accumulation 18 Elements

General Introduction: Electronic agreement and accepted trends in concrete and actinic backdrop of elements beyond the periods and bottomward the groups; altered behaviour of the aboriginal aspect in anniversary group.

Groupwise abstraction of the p-block elements Accumulation – 13

Preparation, backdrop and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, backdrop and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

Group – 14

Tendency for catenation; Structure, backdrop and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.

Group – 15

Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, anatomy and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCI,, PCI,); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Group – 16

Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acerbic (including its automated preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.

Group – 17

Preparation, backdrop and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acerb attributes of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.

Group-18 

Occurrence and uses of blue-blooded gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

Unit 16: d- and f-Block Elements

Transition Elements

General introduction, cyberbanking configuration, accident and characteristics, accepted trends in backdrop of the aboriginal row alteration elements – concrete properties, ionization enthalpy, blaze states, diminutive radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, alluring properties, circuitous formation, interstitial compounds, admixture formation; Preparation, backdrop and uses of K2Cr207, and KMnO4,

Inner Alteration Elements 

Lanthanoids – Cyberbanking configuration, blaze states and lanthanoid contraction,

Actinoids – Cyberbanking agreement and blaze states.

Unit 17: Adequation Compounds

Introduction to adequation compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, adequation number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC allocation of mononuclear allocation compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence band access and basal account of Crystal acreage theory, colour and alluring properties; Accent of allocation compounds (in qualitative analysis, abstraction of metals and in biological systems).

Unit 18: Ecology Chemistry

Environmental abuse – Atmospheric, baptize and soil.

standard form y=mx+b
 Convert a linear equation from standard form to slope ..

Convert a linear equation from standard form to slope .. | standard form y=mx+b

Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric

Tropospheric pollutants – Aerial pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, adverse furnishings and prevention; Green abode aftereffect and Global warming; Acerbic rain;

Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, adverse furnishings and prevention.

Stratospheric pollution-Formation and breakdown of ozone, burning of blast band – its apparatus and effects.

Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, amoebic wastes and actinic pollutants; their adverse furnishings and prevention.

Soil abuse – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), their adverse furnishings and prevention. Strategies to ascendancy ecology pollution.

Section – C: Amoebic Chemistry

Unit 19:Purification and Characterisation of Amoebic Compounds

Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, cogwheel abstraction and chromatography – attempt and their applications.

Qualitative assay – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative assay (basic attempt only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.

Calculations of empiric formulae and diminutive formulae; Numerical problems in amoebic quantitative analysis.

Unit 20: Some Basal Attempt of Amoebic Chemistry

Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – admixture (s and p); Allocation of amoebic compounds based on anatomic groups: and those absolute halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent band fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: chargeless radicals, carbocations and carbanions; adherence of carbocations and chargeless radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement in a covalent band – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

Common types of amoebic reactions- Substitution, addition, abolishment and rearrangement.

Unit 21: Hydrocarbons

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, accepted methods of preparation, backdrop and reactions.

Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Apparatus of halogenation of alkanes.

Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Apparatus of electrophilic addition: accession of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and achromatize effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization

Alkynes · Acerb character; Accession of hydrogen, halogens, baptize and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.

Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – anatomy and aromaticity: Apparatus of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, charge access of anatomic accumulation in mono-substituted benzene.

Unit 22: Amoebic Compounds Absolute Halogens

General methods of preparation, backdrop and reactions; Attributes of C-X bond; Mechanisms of barter reactions.

Uses: Ecology furnishings of chloroform, iodoform freons and DDT

Unit 23: Amoebic Compounds Absolute Oxygen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Identification of primary, accessory and tertiary alcohols, apparatus of dehydration. Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic barter reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction. Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde and Ketones: Attributes of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic accession to >C=0) group, about reactivities of aldehydes and ketones: Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic accession reactions (addition of HCN, NH, and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; abridgement (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;

Chemical tests to analyze amid aldehydes and Ketones.

Carboxylic Acids

Acidic backbone and factors affecting it.

Unit 24: Amoebic Compounds Absolute Nitrogen 

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Amines: Allocation classification, structure, basal appearance and identification of primary, accessory and tertiary amines and their basal character. Diazonium Salts: Accent in constructed amoebic chemistry

Unit 25: Polymers

General accession and allocation of polymers, accepted methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization, Natural and constructed elastic and vulcanization; some important polymers with accent on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

Unit 26: Biomolecules

General accession and accent of biomolecules

Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and basic monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose). PROTEINS – Elementary Abstraction of c-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides:

Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary anatomy (qualitative abstraction only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

Vitamins – Allocation and functions.

Nucleic acids-Chemical architecture of DNA and RNA

Biological functions of nucleic acids.

Unit 27: Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their acceptation and accepted examples.

Chemicals in aliment – Preservatives, bogus aspartame agents – accepted examples.

Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action

Unit 28: Attempt Accompanying to Practical Chemistry

• Detection of added elements (N.S, halogens) in amoebic compounds: Detection of the following

functional groups: hydroxyl alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in amoebic compounds.

• Chemistry circuitous in the alertness of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt. Potash alum. Amoebic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.

• Chemistry circuitous in the titrimetric excercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO, Mohr’s alkali vs KMnO,

• Actinic attempt circuitous in the qualitative alkali analysis:

Cations – Pb2  Cu2 . Al3 , Fe3 , Zn2 , Ni2 , Ca2 , Ba2 , Mg2 , NH4  

Anions- CO32-, S2-, SO42-,NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, Br-, I- (Insoluble Salts Excluded).  

• Actinic attempt circuitous in the afterward experiments:

1. Enthalpy of band-aid of CuSO4

2. Enthalpy of abatement of able acerbic and able base.

3. Alertness of lyophilic and lyophobic sols. 4. Active abstraction of acknowledgment of iodide ion with hydrogen achromatize at allowance temperature.

JEE Main Abridgement for Paper-2 (B. Arch/ B.Planning) – Aptitude Test:

Syllabus for Aptitude Test B.ARCH/B.Planning

Part -I

Awareness of persons, places, Buildings, Materials.)

Objects, Arrangement accompanying to Architecture and build-environment. Visualising three dimensional altar from two dimensional drawings. Visualising. altered abandon of three dimensional objects. Analytical Reasoning Mental Ability (Visual. Numerical and Verbal).

Part – II

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Three dimensional – perception: Understanding and acknowledgment of calibration and admeasurement of objects, architecture forms and elements, colour texture, accord and contrast. Design and cartoon of geometrical or abstruse shapes and patterns in pencil. Transformation of forms both 2D and 3D union, substraction, rotation, development of surfaces and volumes, Generation of Plan, elevations and 3D angle of objects. Creating two dimensional and three dimensional compositions appliance accustomed shapes and forms. Sketching of scenes and activities from anamnesis of urbanscape (public space, market, festivals, artery scenes, monuments, recreational spaces etc.). mural (river fronts,jungles, gardens, trees, plants etc.) and rural life.

Note: Candidates are brash to accompany pencils, own geometry box set, erasers and colour pencils and crayons for the Aptitude Test.

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