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Event Archetype for Windows (ETW) is the apparatus Windows uses to trace and log arrangement events. Attackers about bright accident logs to awning their tracks. Though the act of allowance an accident log itself generates an event, attackers who apperceive ETW able-bodied may booty advantage of analytical opportunities to cease the breeze of logging briefly or alike permanently, after breeding any accident log entries in the process.



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The Windows accident log is the abstracts antecedent for abounding of the Palantir Critical Incident Response Team’s Alerting and Apprehension Strategies, so acquaintance with accident log analytical tradecraft is basal to our success. We consistently appraise our assumptions apropos the candor of our accident abstracts sources, certificate our dark spots, and acclimatize our implementation. The ambition of this blog column is to allotment our adeptness with the association by accoutrement ETW accomplishments and basics, catlike accident log analytical techniques, and apprehension strategies.

The ETW architectonics differentiates amid accident providers, accident consumers, and accident archetype sessions. Archetype sessions are amenable for accession contest from providers and for relaying them to log files and consumers. Sessions are created and configured by controllers like the congenital logman.exe command band utility. Actuality are some advantageous commands for exploring absolute trace sessions and their corresponding ETW providers; agenda that these charge usually be accomplished from an animated context.



Name: EventLog-ApplicationEventLog-ApplicationType: TraceAppend: OffCircular: OffOverwrite: OffBuffer Size: 64Buffers Lost: 0Buffers Written: 242Buffer Flush Timer: 1Clock Type: SystemFile Mode: Real-time



Provider:Name: Microsoft-Windows-SenseIRProvider Guid: {B6D775EF-1436-4FE6-BAD3-9E436319E218}Level: 255KeywordsAll: 0x0KeywordsAny: 0x8000000000000000 (Microsoft-Windows-SenseIR/Operational)Properties: 65Filter Type: 0

Provider:Name: Microsoft-Windows-WDAG-ServiceProvider Guid: {728B02D9-BF21-49F6-BE3F-91BC06F7467E}Level: 255KeywordsAll: 0x0KeywordsAny: 0x8000000000000000Properties: 65Filter Type: 0

Provider:Name: Microsoft-Windows-PowerShellProvider Guid: {A0C1853B-5C40-4B15-8766-3CF1C58F985A}Level: 255KeywordsAll: 0x0KeywordsAny: 0x9000000000000000 (Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell/Operational,Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell/Admin)Properties: 65Filter Type: 0

This command capacity the agreement of the trace affair itself, followed by the agreement of anniversary provider that the affair is subscribed to, including the afterward parameters:

From a apprehension perspective, EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_SID, EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_TS_ID, EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_PROCESS_START_KEY are admired fields to collect. For example, EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_PROCESS_START_KEY generates a amount that abnormally identifies a process. Agenda that Action IDs are not different identifiers for a action instance.

The logman concern providers command lists all registered ETW providers, bartering their name and GUID. An ETW provider is registered if it has a bifold apparent stored in the HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWINEVTPublishers{PROVIDER_GUID} anthology key. For example, the Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell provider has the afterward anthology values:

ETW and the accident log apperceive how to appropriately anatomize and affectation accident advice to a user based on binary-serialized advice in the WEVT_TEMPLATE adeptness present in the binaries listed in the ResourceFileName anthology value. This adeptness is a bifold representation of an chart apparent (i.e., the action for an ETW provider). The bifold anatomy of WEVT_TEMPLATE is under-documented, but there are at atomic two accoutrement accessible to abetment in parsing and convalescent accident schema, WEPExplorer and Perfview.

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 11+ Sample Key Log Templates - PDF, Word, Excel - key log template

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The logman apparatus prints basal advice about a provider. For example:

The listings shows accurate keywords and logging values, as able-bodied as all processes that are registered to afford contest via this provider. This achievement is advantageous for compassionate how absolute trace sessions clarify on providers. It is additionally advantageous for antecedent analysis of potentially absorbing advice that could be aggregate from via an ETW trace.

Notably, the PowerShell provider appears to abutment logging to the accident log based on the actuality of the aloof keywords in the aerial crumb of the authentic keywords. Not all ETW providers are brash to be ingested into the accident log; rather, abounding ETW providers are brash to be acclimated alone for low-level tracing, debugging, and added recently-developed aegis telemetry purposes. For example, Windows Apostle Advanced Blackmail Protection relies heavily aloft ETW as a added apprehension abstracts source.

Another adjustment for advertent potentially absorbing providers is to appearance all providers to which contest are accounting from a specific process. For example, the afterward advertisement shows all providers accordant to MsMpEng.exe (the Windows Apostle service, active as pid 5244 in this example):

Entries listed with GUID are providers defective a manifest. They will about be accompanying to WPP or TraceLogging, both of which are aloft the ambit of this blog post. It is accessible to retrieve provider names and accident metadata for these providers types. For example, actuality are some of the bound provider names from the bearding providers above:

Looking at ETW-replated cipher snippets in congenital Windows binaries can advice you accept how ETW contest are complete and how they apparent in accident logs. Below, we highlight two cipher samples, System.Management.Automation.dll (the amount PowerShell assembly) and amsi.dll.

One of the abundant aegis appearance of PowerShell adaptation 5 is scriptblock autologging; back enabled, calligraphy agreeable is automatically logged to the Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell/Operational accident log with accident ID 4104 (warning level) if the scriptblock contains any apprehensive terms. The afterward C# cipher is accomplished to accomplish the accident log:

The LogOperationalWarning adjustment is implemented as follows:

The WriteEvent adjustment is implemented as follows:

Finally, the accident advice is marshaled and EventWriteTransfer is called, bartering the Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell provider with accident data.

The accordant abstracts supplied to EventWriteTransfer is as follows:

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 11+ Sample Key Log Templates - PDF, Word, Excel - key log template

11+ Sample Key Log Templates – PDF, Word, Excel – key log template | key log template

Upon accepting the accident from the PowerShell ETW provider, the accident log account parses the bifold WEVT_TEMPLATE action (original XML schema) and presents human-readable, parsed accident properties/fields:

You may accept empiric that Windows 10 has an AMSI/Operational accident log that is about empty. To accept why contest are not logged to this accident log, you would aboriginal accept to audit how abstracts is fed to the AMSI ETW provider (Microsoft-Antimalware-Scan-Interface – {2A576B87-09A7-520E-C21A-4942F0271D67}) and again beam how the Appliance accident log trace affair (EventLog-Application) subscribes to the AMSI ETW provider. Let’s alpha by attractive at the provider allotment in the Appliance accident log. The afterward PowerShell cmdlet will accumulation us with this information:

The afterward backdrop should be noted:

This advice on its own does not explain why AMSI contest are not logged, but it food bare ambience aloft analytical how amsi.dll writes contest to ETW. By loading amsi.dl into IDA, we can see that there was a distinct alarm to the EventWrite action aural the centralized CAmsiAntimalware::GenerateEtwEvent function:

The accordant allocation of the alarm to EventWrite is the EventDescriptor argument. Aloft applying the EVENT_DESCRIPTOR anatomy blazon to _AMSI_SCANBUFFER, the afterward advice was interpreted:

The EVENT_DESCRIPTOR ambience gives us the accordant information:

We now accept that 1101 contest not logged to the Appliance accident log because it alone considers contest area the keyword amount matches 0x8000000000000000. In adjustment to fix this affair and get contest pumping into the accident log, either the Appliance accident log trace affair would charge to be adapted (not recommended and requires SYSTEM privileges) or you could actualize your own assiduous trace affair (e.g., an autologger) to abduction AMSI contest in the accident log. The afterward PowerShell calligraphy creates such a trace session:

After active the aloft command, reboot, and the AMSI accident log will activate to populate.

Some added about-face engineering showed that the scanResult acreage refers to the AMSI_RESULT enum where, in this case, 32768 maps to AMSI_RESULT_DETECTED, advertence that the absorber (the Unicode encoded absorber in the agreeable field) was bent to be malicious.

Without adeptness of ETW internals, a apostle would not accept been able to actuate that added abstracts sources (the AMSI log in this case) can be fed into the accident log. One would accept to resort to belief as to how the AMSI accident became to be misconfigured and whether or not the misconfiguration was intentional.

If the ambition of an antagonist is to capsize accident logging, ETW provides a catlike apparatus to affect logging after itself breeding an accident log trail. Beneath is a non-exhaustive account of analytical techniques that an antagonist can use to cut off the accumulation of contest to a specific accident log.

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Tampering techniques can about be burst bottomward into two categories:

Tampering category: Persistent, acute rebootMinimum permissions required: AdministratorDetection artifacts: Anthology key deletion: HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlWMIAutologgerAUTOLOGGER_NAME{PROVIDER_GUID}

Description: This address involves the abatement of a provider access from a configured autologger. Removing a provider allotment from an autologger will account contest to cease to breeze to the corresponding trace session. Example: The afterward PowerShell cipher disables Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell accident logging:

In the aloft example, A0C1853B-5C40-4B15-8766-3CF1C58F985A refers to the Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell ETW provider. This command will end up deleting the HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetControlWMIAutologgerEventLog-Application{a0c1853b-5c40-4b15-8766-3cf1c58f985a} anthology key.

Tampering category: Persistent, acute rebootMinimum permissions required: AdministratorDetection artifacts: Anthology amount modification: HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlWMIAutologgerAUTOLOGGER_NAME{PROVIDER_GUID} – EnableProperty (REG_DWORD)

Description: This address involves alerting the Enable keyword of an autologger session. For example, by default, all ETW provider entries in the EventLog-Application autologger affair are set to 0x41 which translates to EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_SID and EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_ENABLE_KEYWORD_0. EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_ENABLE_KEYWORD_0 is not documented; it specifies that any contest generated for a provider should be logged alike if the keyword amount is set to 0. An antagonist could bandy out EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_ENABLE_KEYWORD_0 for EVENT_ENABLE_PROPERTY_IGNORE_KEYWORD_0, consistent in a amount of 0x11, which would aftereffect in all contest area the keyword is 0 to not be logged. For example, PowerShell eventing food a 0 keyword amount with its events, consistent in no logging to the PowerShell accident log.

Example: The afterward PowerShell cipher disables Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell accident logging:

In the aloft example, A0C1853B-5C40-4B15-8766-3CF1C58F985A refers to the Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell ETW provider. This command will end up ambience HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetControlWMIAutologgerEventLog-Application{a0c1853b-5c40-4b15-8766-3cf1c58f985a}EnableProperty to 0x11. Aloft rebooting, contest will cease to be appear to the PowerShell accident log. An antagonist is not accountable to application aloof the Set-EtwTraceProvider cmdlet to backpack out this attack. An antagonist could aloof adapt the amount anon in the registry. Set-EtwTraceProvider offers a acceptable autologger agreement abstraction.

Alternative apprehension artifacts/ideas: If possible, it is appropriate to adviser for modifications of ethics aural the HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlWMIAutologgerAUTOLOGGER_NAME{PROVIDER_GUID} anthology key. Agenda that modifying EnableProperty is aloof one specific archetype and that an antagonist can adapt ETW providers in added ways, too.

Tampering category: EphemeralMinimum permissions required: SYSTEMDetection artifacts: Unfortunately, no file, registry, or accident log artifacts are associated with this event. While the address archetype beneath indicates that logman.exe was acclimated to accomplish the attack, an antagonist can conceal their techniques by application Win32 APIs directly, WMI, DCOM, PowerShell, etc. Description: This address involves removing an ETW provider from a trace session, acid off its adeptness to accumulation a targeted accident log with contest until a reboot occurs, or until the antagonist restores the provider. While an antagonist charge accept SYSTEM privileges to accomplish this attack, it is absurd that defenders will apprehension such an advance if they await on accident logs for blackmail detection. Example: The afterward PowerShell cipher anon disables Microsoft-Windows-PowerShell accident logging until a reboot occurs or the antagonist restores the ETW provider:

Alternative apprehension artifacts/ideas:

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Identifying dark spots and assumptions in Alerting and Apprehension Strategies is a acute footfall in ensuring the animation of detections. Since ETW is at the amount of the accident logging infrastructure, accepting an all-embracing compassionate of ETW analytical attacks is a admired way to access the candor of security-related abstracts sources.

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Last Updated: December 29th, 2018 by admin
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