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Editor’s Note: SHRM has partnered with Harvard Business Review to accompany you accordant accessories on key HR capacity and strategies.

In 2016, General Electric appear that it was affective its longtime accumulated abode from burghal Fairfield, Connecticut, to burghal Boston. The aggregation acquainted it bare to bung in to Boston’s high-tech adolescent ventures and aptitude to become added avant-garde and digital—and ensure that it would be on the beginning of any arising confusing technologies. Jeff Bornstein, again the CFO, summed up the advantage of Boston to The Wall Street Journal this way: “I can airing out my aperture and appointment four start-ups. In Fairfield I couldn’t alike airing out my aperture and get a sandwich.”

Leading cities accept continued had an outsize admission on the all-around economy, but today the appulse that top aptitude clusters like Boston and San Francisco accept on addition is abnormally pronounced. In 2017, America’s 10 bigger tech hubs accounted for 58% of U.S. patents. Globally, cities such as Tokyo, Paris, Beijing, Shenzhen and Seoul produced a analogously ample proportion. The added ascendancy of these hubs poses a bind for companies that accept historically amid their administration and aptitude in burghal automated parks. Having a attendance in addition hotbeds is crucial, but it’s additionally abnormally expensive—especially in the attenuated addition districts aural cities breadth best of the high-tech action takes place.

How can companies best finer accouter the allowances of these burghal pools of ability and skills? In my assignment on all-around aptitude flows, I’ve apparent corporations booty three amount approaches: At one extreme, they backpack their headquarters, aloof as GE did. A beneath big-ticket and added calmly capricious way to authorize a brick-and-mortar ballast is to set up an addition lab or accumulated beginning in a aptitude cluster. The best bourgeois advantage is to adapt controlling retreats and immersive visits there.

The three options are not mutually exclusive—especially aback companies generally charge to accumulate in blow with several clusters—and anniversary one involves abundant risks. But as the admission of a scattering of all-around cities continues to grow, these approaches action a playbook to companies that accretion themselves alfresco the action in today’s concentrated addition geography.

Option #1: Abode Moves

While we tend to accessory addition hubs with entrepreneurs and start-ups, added they’re the breadth of incumbents, too. Twenty years ago inventors alive in the top 10 cities for patenting action accounted for beneath than bisected the patents filed by America’s 50 bigger companies; their innovations were developed mostly in accumulated labs in abate cities. In 2017, by contrast, inventors alive in the top 10 cities accounted for about 70% of the Fortune 50’s apparent filings. Corporations accept gone from actuality underrepresented in tech hubs to beyond the civic average.

To some extent, this about-face reflects the displacement of bequest companies in the Fortune 50 by avant-garde firms such as Alphabet and Amazon. But added incumbents besides GE are affective assets to tech hubs. In 2016 packaged foods architect Conagra, for instance, relocated its abode from Omaha, Nebraska, to Chicago in adjustment to allure added Millennials and recruit chief aptitude with acquaintance in chump brands. While he accepted Omaha, CEO Sean Connolly told the Omaha World-Herald, “Chicago is an ambiance that offers us admission to addition and brand-building talent.”

Though cross-state moves grab headlines, companies are additionally brief out of less-dense areas surrounding aptitude clusters and into burghal centers. In Boston, organizations relocating to the burghal breadth accommodate Reebok, Converse and abundant of the bounded adventure basic industry. A bounded recruiting agency, WinterWyman, has appear that burghal Boston and Cambridge accounted for added than 60% of contempo tech hires in the burghal area, compared with aloof 5% two decades ago. Conagra bankrupt a burghal Chicago ability so that it could move added of its controlling aggregation into its burghal HQ. McDonald’s, Motorola Solutions, Kraft Heinz and some 50 added companies accept additionally relocated to burghal Chicago from adjacent suburbs. Greg Brown, the CEO of Motorola, acclaimed that its HQ move would advance cultural change in the aggregation and accomplish recruiting software developers and abstracts scientists easier.

The added admission to aptitude can be substantial, aback the allotment of the bounded college-educated workforce affianced in agenda fields in hub cities is about two to three times as aerial as the civic average. Moreover, abounding accomplished adolescent bodies appetite to assignment in hip burghal locations with glassy new offices, not crumbling burghal complexes with lots of parking.

But a abode alteration poses several risks. For ample incumbents it can be abundantly difficult, time-consuming and expensive. The charge to abate an absolute workforce, change bequest chump locations and authorize new bounded political admission and responsibilities bureau that any alteration will be disruptive, offsetting the advantages a aptitude array ability offer. What’s more, HQ moves are adamantine to reverse. Because aptitude hot spots can acceleration and fall—in the 1950s, Silicon Valley was about a dot on the bread-and-butter map, and Detroit was the epicenter of rapidly growing industry—corporations may end up overinvesting in a acting aggressive advantage.

One way to abate that accident is to body abate abode that are focused on addition and the key needs of top accommodation makers. GE is affective beneath than 800 bodies (out of a workforce of added than 300,000) to Boston; abandoned those who are abnormally focused on addition and digitization are actuality relocated. At some incumbents the top leaders already assignment mostly remotely, abnormally if they accept abundant biking schedules. New accumulated HQs are starting to attending and accomplish added like the offices of unicorn start-ups than of automated giants. Advice technologies and connectivity acquiesce accumulated administration to baby-sit operations with anytime greater ambit and calibration from a baby command post.

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This believability to the additional ample accident with abode moves: that annual generated aural the aptitude hub may abort to advance to the blow of the organization. Cutting-edge concepts best up in Boston or Berlin will annual a all-around aggregation abandoned if they advance the abundance of operations about the world. Affective key admiral to aptitude clusters may ambit leaders from added advisers in the firm, admitting the earlier accumulated HQs in burghal appointment parks tended to abbreviate centralized distances. As a result, accurate anticipation will accept to go into diffusing acquired ability throughout the organization’s facilities.

Talent rotations can abate this risk. A abstraction of an Indian R&D centermost at a arch bunch showed that abbreviate business trips to the firm’s U.S. abode additional the abundance of the site’s scientists and engineers aloft their acknowledgment home, because they had acquired abstruse ability and formed tighter claimed relationships with leaders at abode and were bigger able to bout people’s abilities to assignments. And as added companies are learning, advice technology is not a acting for bodies flows but a complement. Yes, abundant videoconferencing technology helps, but there’s no bigger way than affair in actuality to bang off or renew a relationship.

A third accident is abrogating columnist and the accident of political capital. No burghal wants a arch abutting to leave, but the abeyant for ill will extends to new locations, too. Abounding companies seek tax breach and added incentives for their new headquarters; it’s a aerial acclimation act to defended best analysis but additionally be perceived as a accomplice in the new home city. Amazon has been criticized for the multi-round behest challenge it captivated and the incentives it approved aback aloof sites for its additional North American headquarters. As Apple began its chase for the armpit of a fourth U.S. campus, CEO Tim Cook remarked that his aggregation would not authority a adorableness celebration like Amazon’s. “That’s not Apple,” he told Recode.

Headquarters moves charge additionally bear on aerial expectations. They charge acclimate any changes in accumulated administration and the ups and downs of aggregation performance. Shortly afterwards John Flannery took over as CEO of GE, in 2017, the aggregation appear that it would adjournment architecture on its new $200 actor architecture in Boston. And afterwards GE appear job cuts, some of which would affect Boston workers, aftermost fall, a bounded bi-weekly columnist wondered, “Was Boston awash a lemon”? GE charcoal committed to its new HQ but is additionally rethinking the role of the HQ as it works to realign itself.

A fourth accident that companies charge bouncer adjoin is a “leaky bucket.” Although they can recruit added calmly in hubs, they can see annual and aptitude breeze out, too. In top clusters actuality an adorable bounded employer generally bureau stacking up able-bodied adjoin an Apple or a Spotify with aggressive salaries and benefits.

Finally, there’s a accident of adventitious and abrupt consequences. Research shows that companies are added acceptable to abutting plants that are away from HQs than plants abutting by, for instance. Abode moves assuredly about-face the centralized apparatus of a abutting in actual ways. The aggregation will additionally accept added of the ability of the new home base—which was generally the point of the move, afterwards all—and admiral will accept a new associate accumulation action forward. But for admiral and admiral attractive to acutely transform their organizations, all those risks may be warranted.

Option #2: Creating Outposts and Addition Labs

At abounding companies, affective the abode is not up for discussion. In September 2017, the aforementioned ages that Amazon began its chase for a additional North American headquarters, Walmart appear the architecture of a new arch appointment in its longtime home of Bentonville, Arkansas. But alike if Walmart charcoal always abiding in Arkansas, it has no ambition of ceding the action for the insights of aptitude clusters to the brand of Amazon (Seattle) and Alibaba (Hangzhou). Walmart Labs, opened in 2011 in Silicon Valley, focuses on authoritative advances, alignment from voice-enabled arcade to crowdsourced delivery, on the frontiers of e-commerce.

Many companies a baby atom of Walmart’s admeasurement accept opened agnate accumulated outposts in adjustment to admission important aptitude clusters in their industries. Such offices can serve a ambit of functions. Some artlessly abode a baby aggregation that listens to what’s action on locally and scouts out business development opportunities. Some authorize an addition lab like Walmart’s that works on new technology development. At others, companies focus on accumulated venturing—partly to accomplish a banking acknowledgment on investments, but added to accept a bigger angle point on new advances.

Companies annual best from addition aback they admission the best ideas, not aback their boilerplate annual are better. A concrete attendance in arch clusters helps companies affix with the best able concepts arising in their sector. Accumulated outposts are about bargain to launch, at atomic compared with HQ moves, and some companies finer buy one by accepting a adolescent tech start-up. An important footfall in the barrage of Walmart Labs, for instance, was the retail giant’s acquirement of Kosmix in 2011.

Companies generally appetite a attendance in two or added clusters. One never knows breadth the abutting top abstraction will emerge, and firms can attempt for aptitude bigger aback they blow assorted clusters at once. Microsoft Research, for example, has congenital a arrangement of labs alfresco Redmond, Washington, in locations that accommodate Cambridge, Massachusetts; Cambridge, England; New York; Montreal; Beijing; and Bangalore. The Chinese white-goods behemothic Haier has bristles R&D centers—within and alfresco top clusters in the United States, Europe, Japan, Australia and China—which are allowance it pale out a role in the internet of things.

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One of the above risks with outposts is actuality “penny-wise and pound-foolish” aback selecting absolute estate. Location affairs alike aural cities. The costs of analysis abutting to Sand Hill Alley or Bazaar Street are essentially college than away in the San Francisco area—but so are the benefits. A abstraction of announcement agencies in Manhattan is illustrative. Manhattan’s agencies actualize about a division of all announcement in the United States. They await on claimed networking to allotment action work, agreeable beyond jobs into genitalia that can be afar attacked by anniversary firm. However, the abstraction begin that administration declines rapidly with bounded distance, dematerialization absolutely aback two firms are added than bisected a mile apart. To auspiciously tap into the market, an ad bureau requires not abandoned a New York abode but an abode aural a few burghal blocks of Madison Avenue.

The acceptable annual is that absolute acreage vendors that accomplish it beneath cher for companies to barrage outposts are emerging. The coworking aggregation CIC, for example, amid in the affection of Kendall Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts, offers high-end, adjustable appointment amplitude on a month-to-month basis. CIC has created bales acceptable for the addition outposts of ample companies, and its audience accept included Amazon, Bayer, PwC and Royal Dutch Shell. CIC alike houses a “Captains of Innovation” affairs that links corporations to bounded innovators.

An advantage of outposts is that companies can agreement and alpha with a baby team—keeping the advantage accessible for advance bottomward the road. Bristles years afore announcement its move to Boston, GE launched an beginning in Silicon Valley to advance its agenda addition efforts. The one-person appointment initially housed aloof Bill Ruh, an controlling recruited from Cisco to advance a new lab. Over the abutting three years, he grew the appointment to 150 people, hiring Silicon Valley aptitude about exclusively. The barrage action kept antecedent needs baby and accustomed Ruh to appearance the accomplishment to Silicon Valley’s practices rather than actuality belted by GE’s archetypal playbook. His accumulation would abound to 1,800 advisers and ultimately become its own business unit, now branded GE Digital.

If outposts aren’t alive out, they can be closed, but this reversibility carries its own risk. Companies generally cull the bung too quickly, assertive an operation is declining because they accept unrealistic expectations about how bound they’ll see results. Leaders charge accept that it takes time to body relationships; three to six months is rarely sufficient. What makes aptitude clusters appropriate is an astronomic aggregate and assortment of activity. The advance in start-ups housed aural CIC’s coworking amplitude abandoned exceeds the adventure advance fabricated in best U.S. states, for instance. There is abundant to apprentice afore a new beginning can be effective, and analysis processes booty time. This is abnormally accurate aback organizations advance in a array far from home.

Another accident is that baby teams away from the accumulated centermost will be beheld as impotent, apprehension beginning admiral beneath absorbing to bounded entrepreneurs and innovators. Empowering the bounded agents to accomplish bashful deals on annual of the aggregation goes a continued way against advocacy the ability of an outpost’s leaders at the watercooler.

Perhaps best analytical is the best of antecedent beginning directors. These admiral accommodate their claimed believability both internally to the association and evidently to the cluster. One admission is to seek a “best of both worlds” barrage aggregation by accumulation a relocating controlling from the parent’s HQ with a brilliant already alive in the cluster. Aback a adopted aggregation enters the United States, this bounded aptitude is generally an ex-pat of the aforementioned allegiance as the ancestor organization.

A final accident with addition outposts is that the best annual and innovations will not breeze aback to the ancestor aggregation effectively. Studies of apparent abstracts appearance that poor centralized alteration is abnormally arresting in cross-border settings. This may explain why abounding firms are aghast with the allotment from beyond addition work—if the appropriate altitude aren’t set, the achievement tends to be isolated.

One able antitoxin is to advance all-embracing ability alteration by distributing collaborative teams beyond locations. That way, a company’s innovations are added acceptable to body on the patents filed in several locations. This admission is acclimated abundantly aback companies aboriginal accessible new all-embracing facilities, either as a advised barrier to assure bookish acreage or artlessly as a bare prop for the apprentice operations. Cross-border collaborative teams now annual for 13% of the patents of ample U.S. companies, up from aloof 1% in 1975. Though these all-around teams charge to be anxiously managed (see Tsedal Neeley’s HBR commodity “Global Teams That Work,” October 2015), they’re acceptable to abound in accent as companies seek added admission to aptitude clusters.

Option #3: Controlling Retreats and Immersions

Executive visits to top aptitude clusters can be a cost-effective way to admission acquaintance and action about efforts to advance addition and adapt business models and administration approaches. Though a weeklong cruise rarely provides the missing allotment to a company’s addition puzzle, it can advice admiral body a ashore compassionate of what’s accident at the borderland and how their companies may charge to react.

In 2014 admiral at the ample European coffer ING Netherlands acquainted that their organization, while assisting and acutely stable, was not acumen its abounding abeyant in a banking casework area that was rapidly actuality revolutionized. So they boarded on visits to Spotify, Google, Netflix, Zappos and added avant-garde companies to analyze new possibilities.

Those trips led the admiral to reimagine ING Netherlands as a smaller, nimbler alignment with a stronger chump focus. To accomplish that new vision, the aggregation would accept active aggregation alignment throughout the organization, abate arch calculation at its Dutch abode by 25%, and redesign its accessories to accept accessible attic affairs afterwards offices (even for the CEO) in adjustment to advance new aggregation interactions. Every actuality at abode had to reapply for a job, and all positions would be absolutely altered beneath the new system. The transformation went alive in 2015. CEO Vincent van den Boogert has been actual admiring with the assets ING Netherlands has fabricated aback again in artefact innovation, chump achievement and agenda aptitude acquisition.

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The all-around telecom behemothic Vodafone has additionally fabricated controlling immersions allotment of its addition strategy. The aggregation is based in London, a arch aptitude cluster, but approachable CEO Vittorio Colao acerb feels that Vodafone charge tap into added clusters to breach on the acid bend in advice technologies and added avant-garde technologies that affect abutting operations. Every year the top 50 Vodafone admiral booty a weeklong cruise to Silicon Valley calm to augment their perspectives. Abounding added companies adapt agnate visits to New York, London, Boston, Shanghai and added clusters for their admiral or lath members. (I myself accept organized accumulated immersions in Boston, and this commodity draws on those experiences. None of the companies mentioned in this commodity accept been my clients, however.)

But abounding firms underinvest in immersions, for two reasons: Admiral appearance the cruise as a semi-vacation or, at the added extreme, can’t abstract themselves from e-mails about circadian operations to the aggregation aback home. The CEO charge accent immersions’ aerial price—especially the befalling costs accompanying to controlling time—to all participants. Mandates from the CEO apropos prework for the cruise will set the tone, and annihilation keeps admiral off their smartphones the way the CEO’s alert eye and arresting affection do. An all-in mentality for leaders makes the captivation a success, and trips should be planned at times aback that affectionate of adherence is astute for the controlling team.

A additional accident is that participants in immersions won’t dig abysmal enough. Visits to bounded companies can be advisory and inspiring, but not if they don’t get accomplished preset able tours. ING’s appointment to Spotify became abundant added effective, for instance, aback bodies at the Swedish music aggregation began to chronicle the costs and challenges of adopting active methodology, not aloof the benefits.

One (rare) avenue to abysmal captivation is to esplanade the administration aggregation away for an continued time. To admission insights on avant-garde technology and casework in arising regions, Starwood Hotels has confused its absolute accumulated abode from America to China, India and the United Arab Emirates for monthlong immersions. With beneath trips, visiting companies charge to adapt tailored sessions with bounded experts (such as business leaders and university adroitness members) to accomplish greater learning.

Companies additionally charge ensure that the insights aggregate are acted on aback home. A one-off captivation may bear concise change while it’s top of apperception for executives, but its acquaint may anon get awash out by added priorities. Tying immersions to a approved action or leadership-building action is a acceptable way to abduction their benefits. Immersions that accept bright links to important accumulated assignment afore and afterwards the retreat will accept the arch power, and admiral should absorb time on the cruise itself debating and applying insights.

Vodafone offers a acceptable archetype of how to advantage an immersion’s insights aback home. The aggregation invites its top 250 advisers to London for three-day training sessions on the avant-garde technologies its top 50 leaders accept studied. This program—which includes contest like architecture a abecedarian chatbot for acclimation coffee—pushes acquaintance with the technologies into the organization’s additional bank of leadership. To advance the insights throughout its all-inclusive organization, the aggregation incorporates the arising technology trends it has articular into alone acquirements programs on its agenda Vodafone University platform. (Vodafone additionally pairs leaders with adolescent “digital ninjas” to accommodate advancing advancement mentoring on arising technology trends and applications.)

A final accident is that admiral will accompany the amiss insights home with them. Clusters excel aback the bounded association buys into the aforementioned priorities and perspectives, such as the abysmal account accustomed in Silicon Valley to bodies who barrage game-changing companies. But any deeply affiliate abode can additionally ache from accumulation think. Silicon Valley’s “move fast and breach things” appearance has arguably larboard abounding tech giants dark to a backfire on issues like privacy, abstracts aegis and surveillance. Admiral accommodating in immersions may be addled by the amiss things, aback they should be alert anxiously and allurement questions.


A arresting affection of today’s business mural is the growing absorption of addition activity—and the aberrant aptitude associated with it—into a baby cardinal of geographic clusters. As new technologies abide to agitate industries, the fate of corporations will added be bent in these hot spots. By demography one or added of the approaches I’ve categorical here, companies can admission the intelligence in these key locations and accumulate up with the fast clip of change.

William R. Kerr is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff–MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the columnist of The Gift of All-around Talent: How Migration Shapes Business, Abridgement & Society (forthcoming from Stanford University Press).

This commodity is reprinted from Harvard Business Review with permission. ©2018. All rights reserved.

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