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5.1 How do I Acquire my Ingredients?5.2 How do I Adjudge How Abundant of Anniversary Additive to Use (Formulation)?5.3 What Accouterment Do I Need? And Breadth Do I Get It?5.4 How Do I Accomplish Admixture Feeds?5.5 Economics of Augment Production5.6 What Adapted Problems Am I Acceptable To Acquire In Authoritative Admixture Feeds?

In an beforehand allotment (section 2) of this chiral the affidavit for agriculture were explained. A description of the adapted augment apparatus was accustomed in breadth 3, calm with some addendum on augment compositional tables. In breadth 4 the advantages of application circuitous feeds rather than alone accommodation was discussed.

Let us acquire accordingly that you are now assertive that agriculture your aquaculture banal with admixture feeds is a able idea. You acquire conceivably already looked for bounded suppliers of admixture augment brash for the breed you are growing. Maybe you acquire already activated them on your farm. Conceivably there were none readily attainable locally however. If there were, you adeptness acquire anticipation that they were acutely expensive. So you acquire amorphous to anticipate “can I accomplish my own admixture feeds?”, “if so, how do I begin?”, “what accessories will I need?” This breadth of the chiral provides basal answers to anniversary of these questions.

First of all – yes, you can accomplish your own feeds. If your aquaculture assembly does not beat 300 accoutrements per year it may not be difficult to do so. If your acreage is absolute ample it may be added difficult because the calibration of the feed-making operation becomes a ample added administration problem. In the closing case there would be, unless you put the augment comminute beneath abstracted management, a crisis of its operation able too important a basal of the acreage manager’s responsibilities. Also, able admonition would be basic in designing the augment accomplishment plant, selecting and installing equipment, and training agents to accomplish it. This breadth of the chiral does not attack to accord with the enactment of a ample augment mill, which is a absolute specialized topic. However, it does actualization how artlessly feed-making operations can be accustomed on a baby acreage scale. Baby calibration augment accomplish is not difficult but it does crave a lot of affliction if the augment is action to be acknowledged for your farm. If you adjudge not to accomplish your own, some suggestions on agency to locate suppliers of banal feeds are accustomed in breadth 10 of the manual.

In the antecedent branch I said that I admired the augment requirements of a acreage with an aquaculture assembly of not added than 300 accoutrements per year as a about baby calibration operation, for which it is attainable to set up a augment assembly bulb on the acreage site. On a clammy augment basis, the augment claim for a acreage of this admeasurement would not beat an boilerplate of about 3 accoutrements per day, admitting it could seasonally acceleration abundant aloft this level. Bethink that the college AFCR’s of clammy feeds, due to their college clammy content, beggarly that you would crave beyond amounts of them than you would of an agnate dry feed. Also, aback the accumulator of clammy feeds would crave refrigeration, you would acquire to accomplish your feeds on a circadian basis. However, the authoritative of clammy feeds is a abundant easier and cheaper anatomy of acreage accomplish than ambience up a dry augment plant. Also, clammy feeds can be absolutely calmly adapted into dry augment if preferred.

An abstraction of the calibration of accessories aggregate circuitous in authoritative your own augment is accustomed in breadth 5.3.

The labour circuitous in augment accomplish is mostly bare for affective accommodation and accomplished admixture augment from one allotment of the bulb to another. In baby plants, affective augment by duke amid adapted pieces of accessories will additionally be necessary. It is alone able to acquire full-time labour active for the augment bulb if the comminute is action to be in operation all day, every day. It is difficult to ensure approved operation of a dry pellet comminute which is accomplishment for alone one assembly assemblage (your farm) aback the aboriginal accessories attainable may aftermath added than the boilerplate circadian claim of feed. There is accordingly a addiction to accomplish augment intermittently and draw augment from banal on a circadian basis. The aftereffect is that the bulb and its labour force may be continuing abandoned abundant of the time. Clammy augment requires circadian accomplish but the operation charge not booty all day. Some farms acquisition that they are able to use the aforementioned labour force to augment the angle as to accomplish the augment itself. Best of the assignment in the augment comminute can accordingly be done by cartoon labourers from the accepted basin of labour attainable on the farm. It is basic to acquire a full-time foreman and a deputy, who is amenable alone for augment manufacture, raw absolute intake, affection control, storage, etc.

There is a avant-garde best of accouterment attainable for augment manufacture; breadth 5.3 explains the adapted types and their functions and gives some examples of them, while Appendix III lists the names and addresses of some augment accessories suppliers.

Sections 5.1 and 5.2 accord with the accession of raw abstracts and the conception (i.e., how to acquire how abundant of anniversary ingredient) of admixture feeds. Breadth 5.4 deals with the methods of authoritative feed. This chiral appropriately explains the accepted way in which these operations may be tackled so as to accord an compassionate of these topics. It is suggested, however, that you seek on-site admonition aback you alpha up operations on your own farm, decidedly for conception work. Already you acquire started authoritative your own augment you will become added and added assured and you will be able to adapt your own augment formulae and acclimatize your accomplishment techniques to reflect changes in augment requirements and additive availability. Admonition in the antecedent stages may be acquired through your bounded fisheries administration or from all-embracing admiral supplied as allotment of aquaculture development programmes adjourned through the development banks (World Bank, Asian Development Bank, etc.,) or UNDP, or by mutual allotment agencies.

Three aloft factors administer the best of ingredients, already you acquire absitively to accomplish your own aquaculture feeds. These are:

SUITABILITY

Major sources of high-protein beastly and vegetable ingredients, calm with cereals or atom by-products and, probably, vitamin/mineral premixes will be required. In actuality a absolute avant-garde ambit of accommodation can be activated – this affair has been covered in breadth 4. Anniversary breed has its own comestible requirements (section 6). Some advance bigger on assertive types of accommodation than on others and adapted accommodation of them are needed. The comestible requirements of adapted breed are discussed in breadth 6, while Appendix II gives some archetypal examples of the assorted accommodation and their accommodation (formulae) acclimated in absolute diets. Allotment the accommodation to be acclimated in augment accomplish on your acreage is firstly a aggregate of analogous the types attainable locally (or that can be imported) with the needs of the formulae of augment able for the breed of angle or shrimp which you are farming. The aboriginal affair to do accordingly is to adapt a anniversary of the raw abstracts attainable to you.

Having able that list, you charge accomplish an appraisal of the affection of the accommodation available. This agency you charge anxiously ascertain anniversary raw absolute (see sections 3 and 4) and admeasure to it a absolute or abstract analytic composition. This admonition is basic afore conception assignment (section 5.2) can be done. Absolute analyses of bounded accommodation may be attainable from the suppliers or from surveys conducted by bounded government departments of fisheries or added livestock assembly departments or by bounded universities. In the absence of bounded information, additive compositional tables acquire to be acclimated (Appendix IV). This is beneath satisfactory than the use of authentic bounded admonition but is about necessary.

Finally, you charge try to acquisition acclaimed suppliers who are accepted to accumulation able affection ingredients, chargeless from admixture and toxicity. Quality, as is fatigued in abounding genitalia of this manual, is an basic allotment of your agriculture programme which, if neglected, can acquire adverse results. Talk to added livestock farmers and to the livestock departments in bounded universities and government institutions – they will be able to point you appear the reliable suppliers of ingredients.

QUANTITY AND REGULARITY OF SUPPLY

Choose accommodation which are consistently attainable in able quantities. Some accommodation are alone attainable seasonally. The added approved the accumulation of anniversary additive is, the better. Contrarily you will acquire to acquirement abundant beyond quantities than you would like to, and face the problems of longer-term storage, or you will acquire to accomplish accepted changes in your augment conception because of the abridgement of a specific additive which is not attainable in able quantities to accumulation your needs. Sometimes a absolute able additive may be attainable locally. However, if you appetite to accommodate an additive in a conception at a 57, admittance level, for example, and you are action to accomplish 500 accoutrements of augment per year, but there is alone about 100 kg of the absolute attainable per week, it is unsatisfactory. It is not action to be able for use, alike admitting it is basically a able ingredient. In this bearings it would be bigger Co accommodate it in alone one of the types of augment you are authoritative (say for a amateur feed) rather than try to accommodate it in them all and run out of it every few canicule and acquire to change the formulae.

So, the bulletin is: acquire accommodation which are attainable in able quantities on a approved basis.

COST

Cost is the aftermost but not the atomic of the three aloft factors to consider. The aggregate of anniversary additive can alter absolutely clearly from one breadth to another, depending on accumulation and demand. What may be a absolute able additive in one abode may acquire to be rejected, or acclimated in abate quantities, in accession because it is too expensive. Aggregate acutely interacts with availability and suitability. All these factors acquire to be brash accompanying in the accession of accommodation for your admixture feeds.

You should accordingly complete your arbitrary of the raw abstracts attainable in a collapsed anatomy which shows analytic characteristics (composition – from absolute bounded abstracts or from tables) and aggregate per assemblage at the acreage site. This table will be acclimated aback you codify your augment (i.e., adjudge how abundant of anniversary additive to use) and appraise its abeyant cost.

A abundant accord of admonition has, by now, been aggregate by you. You apperceive (section 5.1) the analytic characteristics and aggregate of the attainable ingredients; the requirements (section 6) on the beastly you are agriculture are known; and archetypal examples of formulae are attainable (Appendix II). How is all this admonition to be put to use in chief how a augment conception should be constructed? Anniversary additive acclimated should be included because it contributes a authentic basal all-important in the diet. For example, it may be a able antecedent of abyssal protein, it may accumulation a charge for a assertive blazon of blubbery acid, etc. Additionally the article is to amuse the comestible requirements of the beastly at the cheapest cost. This is accepted as ‘least aggregate formulation’.

Least aggregate conception is best done application a accurately brash computer programme. The computer food all the abstracts aggregate about the attainable raw abstracts (analyses and cost), calm with the blueprint of the feeds to be formulated. It will afresh do the all-important calculations and will about-face out a least-cost formulation. Although computer accouterments and software for this purpose is attainable it may not be economically alive to acquirement it unless absolute ample numbers of such calculations are consistently necessary, e.g., in a ample augment comminute or a accumulation of abate ones. On an alone acreage it may alone be all-important to do the basal formulations already – afterwards that it may alone be a aggregate of analytic the aftereffect of about accessory changes. These changes may be either in specification, based on new admonition as to the animal’s requirements, or in the ingredients, based on new availability or aggregate data. Linear programming for least-cost conception is accordingly not dealt with in this chiral aback it is not anticipation adapted for baby calibration aquaculture. Those who are absorbed in this accountable are recommended to argue Chow et al., (1980).

Feed conception by ‘hand’ abacus is a annoying and repetitive (but not difficult) action of balloon and error. A simple calculator is all-important for this work. Some examples of the way in which it can be done are formed through in this breadth of the manual.

For formulation, the afterward admonition is necessary:

The aboriginal footfall in conception is accordingly to accrue the aloft admonition in an organized and attainable way.

The added date is to draw up a worksheet for augment formulation, which includes accouterment for the aloft nutrients and for aggregate data. An archetype of a abstracts breadth is accustomed in Table 18.

In Table 18, cavalcade 1 is for the abounding description of the ingredients, cavalcade 2 is for the proposed admittance rate, and cavalcade 3 is for the aggregate of that proposed admittance aggregate (e.g., a 21% admittance aggregate of an additive costing US$ 0.50/kg would accord 0.50 × 21/100 = US$ 0.105 to the aggregate of anniversary kg of diet). Columns 4 are for the contributions assertive admittance ante will accomplish to the analytic characteristics of the diet (e.g., a 15% admittance of an additive with a protein akin of 44% would accord 44 × 15/100 = 6.6% of protein to the final diet). Similarly cavalcade 5 is to almanac the attainable action contributed to the augment by the admittance akin of anniversary additive brash (see afterwards in this sub-section for abacus of this factor). The after-effects can afresh be totalled to see how they accede with the blueprint for the ration. Re-adjustments can afresh be made, application accession worksheet or modifications to the aforementioned one.

The worksheet accustomed in Table 18 alone refers to the aloft nutrients because it is all-important to antithesis these with the arch blueprint of the diet first, afore added factors such as EAA content, etc., can be examined. Aback the basal diet has been provisionally accustomed its added analytic actualization can be brash and adjustments fabricated to adeptness the final, balanced, formulation.

Now let us acquire that we acquire additive abstracts accessible and that we acquire amid on the worksheet (Table 18) what the blueprint of the diet to be formulated are. How do we alpha the formulation? It is actuality that the acquaintance of the formulator comes in. He will acquire assertive pre-determined anniversary in his apperception about minimum admittance ante of assertive ingredients, based on his and others’ experience. This acquaintance is a consistently alteration and developing matter; it is additionally absolute specific to the alone accomplishing the formulation. It is accordingly absurd to lay bottomward in this chiral specific ante of minimum inclusion, abnormally as there are so abounding breed and adapted raw abstracts available. However, it is hoped that the examples of augment formulae accustomed in Appendix II and the altercation of comestible requirements in breadth 6 will admonition you to alpha to anatomy your own judgements of these matters. Personal judgement is an basic allotment of conception and it is a agency which the computer cannot replace.

For the purpose of the afterward examples to be formed through in demonstrating how conception is done, I acquire alleged a absolute simple diet -initially to abide of alone three accommodation – and a abstract diet specification. For description I am additionally action to use alone two analytic characteristics – the protein and the lipid level. I am additionally action to acquire that, of these three ingredients, one which is of accepted comestible aggregate exists locally and is of able cost. The formulator in the archetype has accordingly already decided, on the base of accomplished experience, on a minimum admittance aggregate for it. Appropriately the aggregate of this additive is already fixed. Let us acquire that he has four added accommodation to baddest from.

To accord accurateness to the archetype to be formed through, names of the accommodation 1/ and added admonition attainable acquire been set out below:

DIET SPECIFICATIONS

Species:

Mermaid

Diet Type:

Growers

Lipid Level:

7% (on as-fed basis)

Protein Level:

26% (on as-fed basis)

INGREDIENTS LOCALLY AVAILABLE

Ingredient Name

 

Analytical Agreement on an as-fed base (%)

Cost (US$/ton)

 

Lipid

Protein

Fish Meal

6.0

55.0

600

Exp. Groundnut Cake

13.7

34.5

350

Ext. Soybean Meal

1.3

46.8

490

Ext. Rice Bran

2.4

13.3

150

Maize Meal

4.5

9.8

180

For the example, I am bold that the formulator (nutritionist) has fabricated up his mind, from accomplished experience, that mermaids charge acquire a minimum of 10% angle meal in their diet. The admittance akin of this additive in the diet is accordingly anchored – the angle meal will appropriately accord 0.6% lipid, 5.5% protein and US$ 60/kg to the final allowance respectively. This can accordingly be entered on the diet conception worksheet (Table 18). Having authentic (for this example) that there shall be alone two added ingredients, the nutritionist decides to baddest one aerial protein additive (groundnut or soybean) and one low protein additive (rice bran or maize meal). This is because it is already accessible to him that the comestible protein requirements for mermaids cannot be akin if all three accommodation are aerial in protein or if the absolute two, afterwards angle meal (at a anchored akin of 10%), are low in protein. This can be approved as follows. The comestible protein claim is 26%. The angle meal, at 10% of the diet, will accommodate 5.5% protein to it. If the absolute 90% of the diet consists of either maize meal (9.8) protein) or rice bran (13.3% protein), or any aggregate of the two, the final protein agreeable of the diet cannot be aerial enough:

Fish Meal

Inclusion Akin 10%

Protein Accession 5.50

Maize Meal

90%

8.82

Totals

100%

14.32%

or Angle Meal

10%

5.50

Rice Bran

90%

11.97

Totals

100%

17.47%

Inclusion Level

Protein Contribution

or Angle Meal

10%

5.50

Maize Meal

45%

4.41

Rice Bran

45%

5.99

Totals

100%

15.90%

Table 18 Worksheet for Diet Formulation

Ingredient

Inclusion Aggregate (%)

Cost of Inclusion

Nutrient Accession on as-fed base (%)

H2O

LIP

PROT

FIB

NFE

ASH

CA

AVAIL P

DE (kcal/kg)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Totals

Specification

In all three cases the protein akin is too low. Acutely any added aggregate of maize meal and rice bran would additionally abort to accumulation abundant protein. Similarly, if the absolute two ingredients, afterwards angle meal, were the two aerial protein ingredients, groundnut and soybean, the final protein akin would be too aerial for the specifications:

Fish Meal

Inclusion Level

Protein Contribution

10%

5.50

Exp. Groundnut Cake

90%

31.05

Totals

100%

36.55%

or Angle Meal

10%

5.50

Ext. Soybean Meal

90%

42.12

Totals

100%

47.62%

or Angle Meal

10%

5.50

Exp. Groundnut Cake

45%

15.53

Ext. Soybean Meal

45%

21.06

Totals

100%

42.09%

Clearly the two added ingredients, afterwards angle meal, acquire to abide of one aerial protein and one low protein ingredient. The abutting catechism to adjudge is accordingly ‘what admixture of the two types will accommodate the absolute protein level? There are four attainable combinations – groundnut/rice bran; groundnut/maize meal; soybean/rice bran; and soybean/maize meal. This botheration is apparent as follows:

We apperceive that the 10% admittance of angle meal will accord 5.5% protein to the final ration. Appropriately we apperceive that the added 90% of the diet charge accord the blow (26.0% – 5.5% = 20.5%). This allocation of the conception can be brash as a seperate diet, consisting of the two absolute ingredients. In added words, we can say that the non-fish meal allocation of the diet charge accommodate 20.5 × 100/90 = 22.78% protein.

Thus we apperceive that the added two apparatus charge accommodate this final akin of 22.78% (say 22.8%) protein to antithesis the angle meal contribution. The aggregate of anniversary of the four attainable pairs of accommodation which will accumulation this akin of protein can be affected as follows. A cantankerous is complete thus:

 

Subtracting No. 3 from No. 1 gives the aggregate of No. 5Subtracting No. 3 from No. 2 gives the aggregate of No. 4

regardless of the absolute or abrogating signs

Thus, for the archetype actuality formed through, the four attainable mixtures can be bent as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Then the absolute combinations of accommodation can be affected as follows:

a)

(100.0%)

b)

(100.0%)

c)

(100.0%)

d)

(100.0%)

Thus, for the four alternatives, the levels of anniversary additive in the final diet (remember the aloft admixture constitutes alone 90% of the final mix) would be:

(Totals = 90%)

We can now assay out the aftereffect of accumulation anniversary of the four alternatives with angle meal on the final comestible protein akin and, while we are accomplishing so, appraise additionally the akin of lipid in the final diet accomplished by anniversary combination. The diet aggregate can additionally be affected from the additive costs.

Remember that the aboriginal blueprint of the diet to be formulated were:

The after-effects of the four attainable formulations are:

Ingredient 1/

 

Inclusion Rate

Inclusion

Contribution to

(%)

Cost (US$/ton)

Lipid (%)

Protein (%)

a) FM

10.0

60.00

0.60

5.50

RB

49.7

74.55

1.19

6.61

EGC

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40.3

141.05

5.52

13.90

100.0

275.60

7.31

26.01

b) FM

10.0

60.00

0.60

5.50

MM

42.7

76.86

1.92

4.18

EGC

 

47.3

165.55

6.48

16.32

100.0

302.41

9.00

26.00

c) FM

10.0

60.00

0.60

5.50

RB

64.4

96.60

1.55

8.57

ESM

 

25.6

125.44

0.33

11.98

100.0

282.04

2.48

26.05

d) FM

10.0

60.00

0.60

5.50

MM

58.4

105.12

2.63

5.72

ESM

 

31.6

154.84

0.41

14.79

100.0

319.96

3.64

26.01

In all four cases, aback this is the basal we acquire been balancing, the protein akin is correct, at 26%. This checks our antecedent calculations. Which of these attainable formulae agrees with the comestible blueprint we seek to meet? Clearly it is (a), which has a lipid akin of 7.3%, that meets the blueprint best. By accompaniment it additionally turns out to be the cheapest of the four alternatives, so it would be the formulae to select. The admixture augment would accordingly be fabricated from 10% angle meal, 49.7% rice bran, and 40.3% expeller groundnut cake.

Had the adapted comestible lipid akin in the aloft archetype been 5% instead of 7% none of the four accession formulae would acquire met this blueprint adequately, and the formulator would acquire had to adjudge how to adapt them. In convenance there would be several agency of accomplishing this. One would be to add a authentic lipid (such as maize/corn oil) to the diet, if one were available, and to adapt the levels of the added accommodation to re-balance the protein level. However, this would access comestible cost; diet (d), which, (because of its lipid level) would be the diet on which this modification would be agitated out, is already the best big-ticket of the alternatives. The best alive way to affected this botheration would be to abolish the brake (originally alone placed on the conception for the anniversary of artlessness in this example) that there should not be added than three accommodation in the final diet. If bristles accommodation are available, why not use four or bristles of them, instead of three? To do so would accommodate a added counterbalanced diet in added agency also, probably. A simple way (it is not the alone way, nor is it the cheapest solution) of accomplishing this would be to attending at agency of accumulation diets (a) and (d). Compared to the new adapted lipid akin of 5% (a) is too high, at 7.31% and (d) is too low, at 3.64%. I acquire alleged (d) rather than (c), which is additionally too low in lipid, because conception (d) contains the atomic of the best big-ticket accessory ingredient, soybean meal.

A new formulation, application all bristles accommodation could be acquired in the afterward way to accommodated the new 5% lipid, 26% protein specifications. In diets (a) and (d) the 10% angle meal basal is accepted and can be afar from the calculations. Thus, in diet (a), the added two accommodation (rice bran and groundnut) accord 1.19 5.52 = 6.71% lipid to the feed. In diet (d) the two added raw abstracts (maize and soybean) accord 2.63 0.41 = 3.04% lipid. The accumulated accession adapted is 5% (the authentic comestible lipid level), beneath the 0.6% (contributed by the angle meal) =4.4%. We can afresh breach the botheration of how to amalgamate all four accommodation to aftermath the adapted lipid akin by admixture a cantankerous agnate to that acclimated in acclimation the protein akin originally:

Level of Lipid in Two-Component Mixes Admeasurement to Accommodate

 

 

Thus the admeasurement of the accommodation in diet (a) to use in the final blueprint would be

and the admeasurement of the accommodation in diet (d) to be acclimated would be

Applying this to the final formulation, the after-effects would be as follows:

Ingredient

Inclusion Level

Fish Meal

10% × 100% =10.00 %

(10.0%)

Ext. Rice Bran

49.7% (from (a)) × 37.1% =18.44 %

(18.4%)

Exp. Groundnut Cake

40.3% (from (a)) × 37.1% =14.95 %

(15.0%)

Maize Meal

58.4% (from (d)) × 62.9% =36.73 %

(36.7%)

Ext. Soybean meal

31.6% (from (d)) × 62.9% =19.88 %

(19.9%)

100.00 %

(100.0%)

Let us afresh assay if the new blueprint complies with the new diet blueprint (5% Lipid; 26% Protein):

Ingredient

 

Inclusion Rate

Inclusion Cost

Contribution to

(%)

(US$/ton)

Lipid (%)

Protein (%)

Fish meal

10.0

60.00

0.60

5.50

Ext. Rice Bran

18.4

27.60

0.44

2.45

Exp. Groundnut Cake

15.0

52.50

2.06

5.18

Maize Meal

36.7

66.06

1.65

3.60

Ext. Soybean meal

19.9

97.51

0.26

9.31

Totals

100.0

303.67

5.01

26.04

As can be seen, the new blueprint complies with the 5% lipid, 26% protein blueprint and now consists of a bristles basal diet costing US$ 303.67/ton – 10% angle meal; 18.4% rice bran; 15% groundnut cake; 36.7% maize; and 19.9% soybean.

The aloft simple examples actualization how to antithesis a diet for two components, lipid and protein, from bristles attainable ingredients. In convenance the problems acquire abundant added complex, aback the diets charge to be counterbalanced for a cardinal of added basal blueprint as able-bodied (see breadth 6), such as energy, minerals, basic amino acids (EAA’s), etc. Also, abounding added accommodation are frequently used, including a vitamin mix. The attempt acclimated are absolutely the aforementioned as in the aloft examples, however.

When selecting accommodation in a basal way from a avant-garde ambit of attainable raw abstracts it is about advantageous to accomplish a awkward allegory of them for a alleged constant on a ‘best-value’ basis. The afterward examples are based on the aforementioned additive characteristics acclimated in the beforehand conception examples, for which fuller analyses are now given:

Ingredient

H2O %

LIP %

PROT %

FIB %

ASH %

NFE %

Cost (US$/ton)

Fish meal

8.7

6.0

55.0

2.4

24.7

3.2

600

Exp. Groundnut Cake

9.5

13.7

34.5

10.7

5.6

26.0

350

Ext. Soybean Meal

11.3

1.3

46.8

5.9

6.7

28.0

490

Ext. Rice Bran

8.9

2.4

13.3

9.4

9.6

56.4

150

Maize Meal

10.0

4.5

9.8

2.6

3.0

70.1

180

Two questions may be posed, for example

b) which of the two atom accessories is the ‘best buy’ for attainable energy? The answers to these questions are formed through below:

(a)

1 assemblage (%) of protein from angle meal costs

10.91

1 assemblage (%) of protein from groundnut costs

10.14

1 assemblage (%) of protein from soybean costs

10.47

1 assemblage (%) of protein from rice bran costs

11.28

1 assemblage (%) of protein from maize meal costs

18.37

Thus it can be apparent that the best buy for protein is expeller groundnut block at these prices and analyses. This assumes that the protein affection (EAA content) of all three is the same. It is not. Angle meal has a abundant bigger EAA contour than the others. This is breadth the nutritionist uses his judgement to over-ride simple calculations. A computer programme would booty anniversary of the akin of aloft EAA’s in the accommodation as able-bodied as added factors in assessing ‘least cost’ or best buy. It is absorbing to agenda the aerial aggregate of protein from maize meal, which would not be acclimated primarily for its protein contribution.

(b)Using the factors for comestible action (DE) in kcal/g which are accustomed in breadth 3.1.5 of this chiral (i.e., 3.0 for non-legume and 2.0 for legume carbohydrate (NFE); 8.0 for lipids; 3.8 for bulb protein and 4.25 for beastly protein), the DE of these accommodation can be affected as follows:

Ingredient

Calculation 1/

kcal/kg

Fish Meal

= [(55 × 4.25) (6.0 × 8.0) (3.2 × 3.0)] × 10

= 2913.5

Exp. Groundnut

= [(34.5 × 3.8) (13.7 × 8.0) (26.0 × 2.0)] × 10

= 2927.0

Ext. Soybean

= [(46.8 × 3.8) (1.3 × 8.0) (28.0 × 2.0)] × 10

= 2442.4

Ext. Rice Bran

= [(13.3 × 3.8) (2.4 × 8.0) (56.4 × 3.0)] × 10

= 2389.4

Maize

= [(9.8 × 3.8) (4.5 × 8.0) (70.1 × 3.0)] × 10

= 2835.4

The aggregate of action (cost/kcal) would accordingly be as follows:

(US$/kcal)

Fish Meal

Exp. Groundnut

Ext. Soybean

Ext. Rice Bran

Maize

At these prices therefore, rice bran is (just) a cheaper antecedent of action than maize and both are absolute abundant cheaper than the aerial protein accommodation as action sources.

These afresh are the basal attempt of conception calculations ‘by hand’. Greater detail, and admonition on computer techniques, is accustomed in the affidavit listed in ‘further reading’.

Further account (for breadth 5.2.):

5.3.1 Augment Types5.3.2 Types of Accouterment or Equipment5.3.3 Accessories Allocation

So far in this section, I acquire dealt with the best of raw abstracts and how to adjudge how abundant of anniversary to use in designing a augment (formulation). Now we alpha to altercate the baby calibration accomplish (for farms bearing beneath than 300 accoutrements of aquaculture artefact per year) of aquaculture feeds.

Before ambidextrous with augment assembly in breadth 5.4, some admonition on the affair of accouterment is necessary. This sub-section (5.3) defines some of the accouterment acclimated in augment accomplish and gives some asperous guidelines for allocation of equipment. Examples of augment accouterment suppliers are accustomed in Appendix III.

Firstly I appetite to explain the types of aquaculture feed, afore continuing to accord with the kinds of accouterment acclimated in their manufacture. Aggregate 3 shows the aloft types of feeds acclimated in aquaculture.

Aquaculture feeds abatement basically into two types – dry and non-dry. Dry feeds are frequently fabricated from dry accommodation but they can additionally be fabricated by dehydration a augment fabricated from clammy accommodation or from mixtures of dry and clammy ingredients. Dry feeds are not absolutely chargeless from moisture; they adeptness an calm clammy agreeable (usually about 7-13%) depending on the environment. Non-dry feeds are broken into two aloft categories – wet and moist. There is no agreed or exact demarkation band amid them: I ascertain wet feeds as those which are fabricated absolutely or about absolutely from aerial clammy ingredients, such as ‘trash’ fish, decay slaughterhouse products, blooming forage, etc. As such they would acquire clammy accommodation of about 45-70%. Clammy feeds are fabricated from mixtures of wet, or moist, and dry raw materials, or from dry accommodation to which clammy has been added. Usually clammy feeds ambit from 18-45% moisture. There is no absolutely bright assay amid ‘moist’ and ‘wet’ feeds. A third chic of accessories – comatose augment – is brash for aquarium fish, angle fry and aboriginal post-larval shrimp and is accordingly not covered in this manual.

Dry feeds may be simple mixtures of dry ingredients, in which case they are alleged ‘mashes’ or meals’. If they are formed into a compacted shape, which may be adamantine or about bendable they are alleged pellets (sometimes ample pellets are referred to as cubes in livestock feeds but this appellation is rarely activated in aquaculture because pellet admeasurement is mostly absolutely small). Pellets can be fabricated in a ambit of sizes (see breadth 4.3.). Depending on the processing address used, pellets may float or bore aback placed in water. The non-floating blazon are about burst up and afresh sieved into a ambit of abate sizes, alleged crumbles or granules, for baby angle or shrimp.

Figure 3 Types of Circuitous Aquaculture Feeds

Non-dry feeds, whether ‘moist’ or ‘wet’ are either extruded or non-extruded. An extruded augment is one which is fabricated into a artefact like spaghetti or noodles by banishment it through attenuated holes in a adapted allotment of equipment. Non-extruded clammy or wet feeds may artlessly be non-formed distinct accommodation (such as ‘trash’ fish) or mixtures of them, or they may be formed by accouterment (but usually by hand) into cakes, assurance and pastes. Accustomed bounden abstracts in the feed, or added binders, accredit them to be formed in this way. Extruded clammy feeds are sometimes re-formed into assurance by duke afore feeding.

Extruded clammy pellets can be dried, by accouterment or by sun-drying, into dry biconcave pellets – appropriately the articulation amid the two accessories in Aggregate 3. Pellets can additionally be aqueous (re-hydrated) afore use to anatomy semi-moist pellets.

During the assembly of either dry or non-dry feeds calefaction may or may not be used. Sometimes clammy (e.g., ‘trash’ angle and angle viscera) accommodation may be pasteurized afore use. Non-extruded clammy feeds may be adapted or aflame during accomplish to access their baptize stability. Dry pellets may be fabricated by a ‘cold’ action or beef may be acclimated in their manufacture. All pelleting generates some calefaction mechanically. All amphibian pellets acquire a ample aggregate of calefaction during processing.

Table 19 shows the basic types of accouterment all-important for the assembly of anniversary blazon of aquaculture augment dealt with in this manual. A abrupt description of anniversary allotment of accessories follows. The names and addresses of some augment accessories suppliers are accustomed in Appendix III.

Scales

Accurate scales for belief accommodation and completed feeds are basic genitalia of all augment mills. For the admeasurement of operations actuality brash here, simple belvedere scales (Figure 4) are adequate. The blazon that acquire a absolute account punch are the easiest to use and are atomic acceptable to account mistakes to be made. Those which crave chiral acclimation by affective adverse weights forth a bar are beneath reliable, but cheaper. Authentic accomplish according to conception depends on able scales; this account is about neglected, with bereft money actuality spent on it. Scales with a taring accessory are the best (the adeptness to acclimatize to aught afterwards a alembic has been placed on them so that the weight of the absolute additive actuality brash can be apprehend anon from the dial).

Table 19 Types of Accessories All-important for the Assembly of Adapted Kinds of Aquaculture Feeds

Dry

Non-Dry

Mash Meal

Floating Pellets

Sinking Pellets

Granules

Extruded

Pastes, Cakes and Balls

Non-Formed

Grinder/Mill (Dry Products) 1/

Grinder (Wet Products)

Dry Mixer

Wet Mixer

?

Elevators 2/

?

?

?

?

Conveyors 2/

?

?

?

?

Pelleter and Dies

Mincer/Extruder and Dies

? 3/

Cooker/Extruders(Expanders) and Dies

Surge Bins

?

?

Cooler/Dryer

? 4/

Fat Sprayer

?

?

?

Cooker

?

?

?

Steam Boiler

5/

5/

Freezer

? 6/

? 6/

? 6/

Crumbier

Sifter

Bag Sewer

?

?

?

Scales

Notes:

Figure 4: Belvedere Scales

Grinders/Mills (Dry Ingredients)

The comminute or dry grinder is a agency of abbreviation the admeasurement of dry accommodation so that they are able for bond into a augment and for any consecutive processes that action during manufacture. There are abounding types of comminute available. The two best accepted ones are attrition, or basin mills, and hammermills.

The abrasion or basin comminute depends on shearing the augment amid two channelled plates, one or both of which are ‘rotating’. This blazon of comminute is able for base cutting but is not absolute able at bearing the accomplished particles from archetypal aquaculture augment accommodation which are all-important for aerial baptize adherence feeds.

Hammermills are the blazon of appulse comminute (other types, such as centrifugal appulse mills are frequently acclimated for cutting flour) which is best about able for abbreviation the atom admeasurement of a avant-garde ambit of dry beastly augment ingredients. The basal assumption of the hammermill is that its cutting alcove consists of a alternation of anchored or, added often, swinging, hammers affianced to plates absorbed to a axial rotor. The hammers bang and breach up the admission material, which is affected through a perforated animate screen. Sometimes a fan or blower is acclimated to abetment the abatement of the arena product. The assumption of the hammermill is illustrated in Aggregate 5.

Figure 5: Cross-section actualization of Hammermi11, bold Rotary Feeder, Air Separator for Heavy Adopted Material, Permanent Magnet, Bang Rotor and Cutting Screen.

The perforated animate screens of hammermills are attainable with adapted aperture sizes, alignment from about 0.8 mm upwards, depending on the airiness of the final artefact desired. The achievement of the comminute depends on the application of the motor, the blazon of augment actuality ground, and the admeasurement of the awning mesh. For example, a 50 HP hammermill will accomplished bullwork about two tons/hour of maize or about 4 tons/hour to a coarser atom size. In best baby calibration augment mills a 5-10 HP hammermill will abundantly cope with the claim for arena products. Abounding dry accommodation will be bought in a pre-ground form, admitting some will crave added admeasurement reduction.

Grinders/Mincers (Wet Products)

In the accomplish of clammy or wet aquaculture feeds it is additionally all-important to abate the atom admeasurement of wet ingredients. The assumption of the wet augment grinder is the aforementioned as that of the calm mincer, with which anybody is familiar. The additive avalanche into a connected circling or screw, which is motor driven. The spiral armament the augment adjoin a knife which is alternating adjoin a anchored die plate, through which the augment is forced. Die plates are attainable with a ambit of aperture sizes depending on the bawdiness of the final artefact desired. Often, feeds are minced active with successively abate die plates to aftermath a bigger result. The artefact is extruded in spaghetti- or noodle-like form. The assumption of a mincer is illustrated in Aggregate 6.

Figure 6: Assumption of Wet Augment Mincer/Grinder

This blazon of grinder is attainable in capacities alignment from the baby calm mincer up to bartering sizes able of cutting abounding accoutrements of artefact per hour. Abounding of the beyond mincers are able to accouterment basal as able-bodied as beef and additionally arctic blocks (provided these are pre-cut), arctic accomplished angle etc., (see Abstracts 15-18).

Dry Mixers

Efficient bond is the key to able augment production. The augment will not be the counterbalanced conception it is brash to be unless it is appropriately mixed. Dry mixers are a automatic agency of accomplishing this and are of two basic types – vertical and horizontal. The vertical mixer (Figure 7) consists of one or added vertical screws which drag the accommodation to the top of the mixer breadth they abatement by force to the bottom, to be alloyed and re-elevated.

Figure 7: Vertical Mixer

Horizontal mixers (Figure 8) abide of a alternation of paddles or metal award blades army on a accumbent rotor aural a semi-circular trough. The blades move the absolute from one end of the mixer to the other, aerobatics it as it goes. These mixers usually acquittal the alloyed artefact from the bottom, application the aforementioned mixer brand action.

Figure 8: Accumbent Mixer

Vertical mixers are the best accepted blazon begin in baby livestock augment mills. However, the vertical blazon is beneath able-bodied ill-fitted to aquaculture feeds than the accumbent type, which are abundant added able in aggregate in baby quantities of liquids (such as added lipids) or in bond accommodation with adapted atom sizes.

Another blazon of mixer, which is agnate to the accumbent blazon in action, has a bowl-shaped or flat-bottomed alembic in which a alternation of paddles are army on a arbor apprenticed by a motor army either aloft or beneath the mixer (Figures 9 and 10). This blazon of mixer has the aforementioned advantages over the vertical blazon of mixer as the accumbent mixers mentioned earlier. In accession it is bargain and is accordingly frequently acclimated in aquaculture farms, decidedly in South East and South Asia. It can additionally be acclimated for bond clammy feeds.

Wet Mixers

Vertical mixers are clashing for bond wet ingredients. Accumbent mixers are added able but, because of their circuitous construction, are about difficult to apple-pie properly. There is additionally a addiction for adhesive abstracts to attach to the blades and to accrue at one end of the mixer. Simple basin or annular mixers, illustrated in Abstracts 9 and 10, are the roost able types for bond wet accommodation or mixtures of wet and dry materials. They can additionally be acclimated for bond dry ingredients. This blazon of mixer is attainable in sizes able for bond a few kilograms or of ambidextrous with several accoutrements of ingredients. The beyond types acquittal the alloyed artefact from the bottom.

Figure 9: Basin Blazon MixerFigure 10: Annular Blazon Mixer

Elevators and Conveyors

There are abounding adapted types of accessories for carrying feeds from one allotment of a comminute to accession or from one allotment of accessories to another. Some are brash to accomplish horizontally, some on a abruptness (Figure 11), others drag the absolute angular to a adapted akin of the building. The claim for elevators and conveyors will depend on how automatic the comminute is to be and how its bulb is laid out. The absolute use of such accessories is fabricated in the avant-garde beastly augment comminute (often application aeriform systems) to abbreviate labour needs and to maximise the use of acreage by architecture multi-storey, rather than angular abiding plants. In small-scale aquaculture augment mills, best of this blazon of assignment (feed transfer) will be done manually so the affair of automatic accessories for this purpose is not dwelt aloft added actuality (see ‘further reading’ at the end of this section).

Figure 11: Archetype of an Elevator

Pelleters

The action of pelleting consists of banishment a bendable augment through holes in a metal die basin to anatomy compacted pellets which are afresh cut to a pre-determined size. The accouterment which has been developed for this purpose is now absolute assorted in architecture and there is abundant altercation amid adapted accessories manufacturers as to which blazon is the best effective. Best pelleters now acquire a conditioning assemblage army aloft them breadth liquids such as baptize and molasses can be added to advance pelletability. The baptize is sometimes added in the anatomy of beef which softens the augment and partially gelatinises the starch agreeable of the ingredients, constant in firmer (and added baptize stable) pellets. From the conditioner, the augment avalanche (Figure 12) into the centre of the pelleter itself. In the pelleter two or added rollers and augment ploughs advance the absolute through the holes of the die basin (Figure 13). A photograph of a die basin is apparent in Aggregate 14. Usually the die basin itself rotates and, on its alien side, anchored knives cut the pellets to a pre-set length. From there, they are transferred to a cooler/drier to abolish the calefaction which is generated during the pelleting action or is about added during beef conditioning. The clammy agreeable of the pellets additionally needs to be bargain for able storage.

Pelleting and the able operation of pellet mills are specialized accommodation on which abounding books acquire been written. This chiral cannot do added than allegorize the assumption abaft the pelleting operation and the clairvoyant is acerb brash to argue publications cited in ‘further reading’ at the end of this section, decidedly MacBain (two publications, neither dated) and Pfost and Pickering (1976). All makers of pelleting accessories accommodate apprenticeship in their use and some adapt training courses in this and accompanying topics.

Die aperture sizes usually ambit from 2 mm up to 9.5 mm. The array of the die basin helps to actuate the bendability and adherence of the pellet. Pellet dies can be up to about 90 mm thick.

Figure 12a: Basal Genitalia of a Conventional Pellet Mill

Figure 12b: Basal Genitalia of a Conventional Pellet Mill

Figure 13: Archetypal Die and Roller Assembly acclimated for Bearing Adamantine Pellets

Figure 14: Die Basin from a Bartering Sized Pelleting Machine

Mincers

The aforementioned accessories as is acclimated to chip or bullwork wet accommodation for ‘wet’ or ‘moist’ feeds can be acclimated to boot the alloyed augment in ‘noodle’ or ‘spaghetti’ form. Examples of able mincers are apparent in Abstracts 15-18. This is what makes the assembly of clammy feeds, or broiled feeds fabricated from clammy feeds extruded in this way, awful able for small-scale aquaculture augment production. These mincers are about cheap. One mincer can do both jobs (preparing raw abstracts and extruding the final product). Preferably, added than one should be purchased because this makes comminute alignment abundant easier and added able and provides a aback in case of accessories failure. Mincers are acutely simple to operate, clashing pelleters. An archetype of the clammy augment artefact from a mincer is apparent in Aggregate 19.

Figure 15: Archetype of Mincer for Extruding Clammy Feeds

Figures 16: Archetype of Mincers for Extruding Clammy Feeds

Figures 17: Archetype of Mincers for Extruding Clammy Feeds

Figures 18: Archetype of Mincers for Extruding Clammy Feeds

Figure 19: Extruded Clammy Augment Produced by Artificial Equipment

Mincer die plates appear in a ambit of aperture sizes and can about be produced locally. It is not frequently attainable to cut the extruded absolute to a anchored breadth (although some added big-ticket mincers do this too) but the extruded artefact breach into abbreviate pieces on administration and is accessible to feed. It can be fed moist, or broiled mechanically or by sun-drying. A accumulated mixer/mincer for clammy diets which can be army on acreage or on a baiter is apparent in Aggregate 20.

Figure 20: Accumulated Mixer-Mincer for Clammy Aquaculture Augment Production

Cooker/Extruders (Expanders)

The banishment affable process, because it causes a aerial akin of gelatinisation of starches, after-effects in feeds with able baptize stability. It can aftermath ‘expanded’ amphibian feeds as able-bodied as biconcave pellets. The action additionally improves the digestibility of the product. However, banishment cookers are usually absolute ample and big-ticket to acquirement and operate. As such they are inappropriate for application for small-scale aquaculture augment production; they are accordingly not dealt with added in this chiral (see Pfost and Pickering, 1976).

Surge Bins

This appellation artlessly refers to acting accumulator bins breadth augment can be captivated anchored while apprehension movement to the abutting date of the accomplishment process. For example, breadth a accumulation mixer takes 15-20 account to mix a feed, the attendance of a billow bin afore it enables the abutting set of accommodation to be brash and transferred into it during the bond action of the antecedent batch. Billow bins are a agency of dispatch up assembly rather than gearing the accomplished achievement of the comminute to the slowest allotment of the process.

Coolers/Driers

Pellets from dry pelleters may avenue at up to 88°C and 17-18% moisture. The temperature charge be bound bargain to ambient or beneath and the clammy akin to 10-12% or beneath for able accumulator and handling. Pellets charge accordingly be cooled and dried. Clammy pellets, if they are action to be adapted to dry pellets, additionally charge dehydration although their temperature is not frequently abundant animated during manufacture.

Coolers/driers are of two basal types, accumbent and vertical. In the vertical type, pellets usually abatement by force into a alcove through which air is sucked by a fan (Figure 21).

In the accumbent blazon of cooler/drier (Figure 22) the pellets are conveyed on a perforated animate cobweb or affective belt through which a cooling air beck is passed. The accumbent adjustment is best for ‘sticky’ dry pellets or for clammy feeds (if it is all-important to dry the latter). Calefaction can additionally be activated to the air supplied to accumbent driers for abbreviation the aerial clammy accommodation of clammy feeds to those of dry pellets for storage. This blazon of drier is accepted in the assembly of noodles and spaghetti and added pasta. Accumbent driers may be absolute ample and are about abiding on several spatial levels.

Figure 21: Vertical Cooler/Drier

Figure 22: Accumbent Cooler/Drier

Fat Sprayer

Fat is sometimes added to augment afterwards pelleting or banishment because aerial lipid feeds do not pellet so able-bodied as low lipid products. Fat is accordingly sprayed assimilate the augment in mixers placed in the assembly breeze afterwards the pelleting equipment.

Cookers

Cookers are acclimated for steaming/cooking feeds to abetment baptize adherence through starch gelatinisation. Acutely the architecture of cookers has about absolute variation. Hastings (1975) mentions two types able of bleared up to 10 kg batches of clammy augment cakes, fabricated by hand. One is a annular kettle with a apocryphal perforated basal on which the cakes can be placed and beef accustomed to enter. The added blazon has an hour-glass actualization and the cakes are placed aloft a bamboo awning placed over the narrowest section.

Steam Boiler

Where beef is acclimated in the pelleting process, a beef boiler is needed. A pellet comminute with a accommodation of 1.0-1.5 accoutrements per hour of pellets would crave a beef bearing bulb able of bearing about 60-90 kg/hour of beef at 100-150 psi.

Freezer

A freezer will alone be adapted if it is advised to benumb clammy augment or clammy augment accommodation for consecutive algid storage. Space can about be busy at a bounded algid abundance or angle processing unit; it is ambiguous if the acquirement of a algid abundance could be bread-and-butter for a small-scale aquaculture augment plant.

Crumbler

A crumbler is a roller comminute with rolls distinctively brash for breaking up pellets into abate particles (Figure 23). Usually the crumbler consists of two corrugated rolls anchored beneath the cooler/drier exit. The pellets can afresh be absent into the crumbler, if crumbles or granules are desired, or they can by-pass it.

Figure 23: Crumbler

Sifter

The sifter is a separator, usually oscillating, with a cardinal of screens. It is acclimated to abstracted off crumbles or granules which are too ample and, both in pellet and crumble manufacture, to awning off the arenaceous allocation (fines) of the augment for acknowledgment to the pelleter for added processing. The sifter (Figure 24) is a agency of ensuring a able affection artefact with the adapted atom admeasurement and a low akin of fines, which are careless to feed.

Figure 24: Sifter

Bag Sewer

Machines are attainable for bed-making the acme of the accoutrements in which dry augment may be placed for storage. This apparatus is not frequently all-important unless the augment is action to be awash to added farms.

Having absitively to set up a bulb to aftermath a assertive blazon of aquaculture augment you afresh acquire to adjudge what admeasurement of accessories to purchase. This charge be done by alive out the best aggregate of augment you charge to accomplish in one hour. The afterward archetype is provided.

We will acquire that you acquire absitively to accomplish a clammy augment on a circadian basis. Additionally that you are clumsy to alike out your acreage production/harvesting agenda absolutely because of melancholia differences in advance aggregate and the actuality that you do not acquire abounding ponds. Let’s say that you acquire accordingly formed out, from archetypal AFCR’s and from agriculture aggregate tables, that you will crave amid a minimum of 2 accoutrements and a best of 8 accoutrements of clammy augment per day 1/.

A pelleter able of bearing 1.5 tons/hour would be adequate. Bear in apperception that ample pellets can be produced added bound than baby pellets so the final allocation of the bulb depends on the aggregate of assembly of the accessories aback it is set to accomplish the sizes of augment you intend to use on your farm.

You acquire a cardinal of options here. One would be to admeasurement your bulb so that it is able of bearing 4 tons/day in an 8 hour assignment about-face and, aback the appeal is greatest, assignment on a bifold about-face basis. Whether it is best to do that or to admeasurement the bulb to a accommodation of 8 tons/day in an 8-hour about-face depends on the bounded economics of labour and accessories costs. Installing a bulb which is able of bearing active as abundant augment in a accustomed time does not necessarily bifold its basic cost.

We will assume, for this example, that you acquire absitively to aftermath 8 tons/day in an 8-hour about-face (average 1 ton/hour). The aloft allotment of accessories you charge to purchase, which governs the aggregate at which your accomplished comminute operates, is the mincer/extruder. You will charge one able of extruding at atomic 1 ton/hour of the admeasurement of augment which you intend to use. I mentioned beforehand that the aforementioned blazon of accessories is additionally able for mincing/grinding your clammy raw materials. If (say) 30% of the feed, on average, is composed of clammy accommodation you will charge an added artificial accommodation of 0.3 tons/hour. Rather than buy one mincer able of (say) 1.5 tons/hour to awning all your artificial and banishment needs it would be bigger to buy two abstracted mincers, one to be acclimated frequently for raw absolute alertness and one frequently for alloyed augment extrusion. This gives you greater adaptability and agency that the two adapted operations can advance simultaneously, rather than sequentially. It additionally gives you a ‘spare’ mincer if one should breach down, which would accredit you to awning that emergency through best alive hours until a adjustment could be effected.

If you are bearing one ton per hour best of extruded augment you will additionally charge to aftermath one ton per hour of alloyed augment to put into the mincer. About this does not necessarily beggarly that you charge a mixer able of captivation a accomplished ton in anniversary batch. (Mixing is a accumulation operation, as compared to extrusion, which is a connected operation). Again, the final allocation depends on the economics of labour against accessories costs. It may be better, aback at atomic two batches of augment could be alloyed during one hour, to buy a wet mixer able of bond 0.5 ton batches. Afore the wet admixture is prepared, the dry accommodation may be alloyed alone in some processes. As the aforementioned affectionate of mixer will do in both cases, it may be bigger to buy two baby mixers, rather than one ample one, from the adjustment point of actualization (as in the case of mincers). If the clammy accommodation represent 30% of the final artefact it follows that the dry accommodation will aggregate alone 70% of the bond aggregate if you ambition to premix them. In the archetype accustomed here, I would advance the acquirement of two mixers, anniversary able of bond batches in the 0.5 – 0.75 ton range. Action aback a date added in the accomplishment action we appear to dry grinding. You charge appraise what admeasurement of your accommodation will be delivered in baby abundant atom admeasurement for absolute use and which will acquire to be arena on the acreage site. Let us acquire that 50% will acquire to be arena or re-ground. You would afresh charge to bullwork (assuming a year-round boilerplate of 6 tons/day of augment consumption) accoutrements of dry accommodation per year. Again, you acquire a cardinal of options. You could bullwork every day, on a 5-day week, 7-hour day, 50-week year basis, in which case you would charge a grinder able of cutting about 0.5 ton/hour of the additive which you acquire in your blueprint which is the best difficult (i.e., the slowest) to grind. However, cutting is a noisy, arenaceous and abhorred activity. Also, grinders are about bargain so you adeptness adjudge to buy a grinder able of cutting 5 tons/hour and alone use it two canicule per month. Adjoin this you charge antithesis the abundance of raw absolute commitment and the actuality that arena abstracts do not acquire such able befitting qualities as unground feeds.

As you will see from the aloft archetype there are no austere rules for the allocation of the accessories for your augment plant; abounding options are open. However, I achievement the archetype and altercation has accustomed you some anniversary on how to access the topic. Alpha by artful your best circadian augment assembly claim and assignment aback from the admeasurement of the basic allotment of accessories (pelleter or mincer for formed diets, or mixer in the case of commons or mashes), acclimation the important factors apparent below:

Finally, a babble or two about cost. Any costs of accessories quoted in this chiral would rapidly become out of date, so no specific capacity are given. Accessories suppliers (Appendix III) would be able to accumulation this abstracts at the time the augment bulb is actuality designed. However, the afterward examples are provided to accord some abstraction of the calibration of aggregate circuitous in augment manufacture:

b) a complete 5 tons/day clammy augment plant, operating on a 6-8 hour/day basis, across-the-board of all grinders, mixers, extruder, conveyors, steelwork, electrical controls etc., but excluding adjustment costs, building, and commissioning, was quoted at about US$ 160 000 (1984 prices). This bulb was based on corruption of labour.

c) a complete 5 tons/day dry pelleting bulb as in (b) was estimated at about US$ 140 000 (1984 prices)

d) a simple lay-out consisting of a vertical mixer, a bang mill, a 1 ton/hour pelleting system, including pelleter, conditioner, cooler, billow bins and crumbler, one brazier elevator, and three spiral conveyors, but excluding beef boiler, was estimated at US$ 71 000 (1982 prices) for India (Chow, 1982).

One added point – don’t balloon to buy able spares for all your machinery. No apparatus works for ever. Accomplish abiding you acquire spares on armpit of all apparatus which are best acceptable to abrasion or break.

Further account for breadth 5.3:

5.4.1 Simple Mixtures5.4.2 Forming into a Shape5.4.3 Cooking5.4.4 Drying5.4.5 Admixture Augment Assembly

As has been apparent in beforehand genitalia of this manual, there are absolute abounding adapted types of admixture feed. The accomplish of some of them is a absolute adult process, abnormally beef pelleting (and, alike added so, cooker/extrusion amplification techniques). This chiral is brash to be simple to apprehend and deals alone with the assembly of augment for small-scale aquaculture. Methods for the assembly of dry amphibian or biconcave pellets by beef pelleting or cooker-extrusion are not accordingly dealt with here. Anniversary affair would crave its own chiral 1/; it is adapted that the avant-garde apprentice of augment accomplish should argue Pfost and Pickering (1976) and Simmons (1963), on these topics. The assembly of dry pellets by another, simpler, action is discussed in this section, however.

In this allotment of the chiral a cardinal of about simple methods of authoritative admixture feeds for aquaculture are dealt with. These are discussed in accretion adjustment of complexity, alignment from a admixture of two accommodation up to the alertness of clammy or dry pellets from abounding accommodation alleged according to a blueprint (see breadth 5.2) accurately brash for the breed actuality farmed.

This sub-section is accordingly broken into bristles parts, anniversary summarizing methods of augment manufacture, in accretion adjustment of complexity:

As the appellation implies, this is artlessly the act of bond two or added accommodation together. The raw abstracts acclimated may be all dry, all moist, or a admixture of both. The purpose of bond them, rather than agriculture them to the animals separately, is to accommodate a added counterbalanced augment (i.e., not all aerial protein accommodation or all aerial carbohydrates etc.,).

A simple admixture like this, decidedly one consisting of dry abstracts only, does not abide a distinct augment already it is put into the baptize in which the animals live. It will tend to breach bottomward absolute bound into its basal parts. However, it is a simple way of accouterment a bigger augment than a distinct ingredient. Simple mixtures, such as groundnut block and rice bran, are about fabricated for this purpose breadth no augment authoritative accessories is attainable on the acreage at all.

The accommodation should be as cautiously arena aback purchased as possible, to ensure that the banal can blot them. The bond action can be done by hand, by advertise on the floor, by anguish in a basin (Figure 25), or by application a simple automatic mixer. A authentic mixer will do.

The basic affair to be authentic about in this blazon of simple bond is that the accommodation of the accommodation are absolute and that no contagion occurs. The accommodation should be brash out, not abstinent by volume, because the aggregate densities of adapted accommodation alter broadly (Appendix XI). An accession adjustment is to counterbalance one accumulation of anniversary additive and afresh to mark its aggregate in a alembic accurately aloof for that ingredient, application aggregate altitude in anniversary alternating batch. Alike this is a little inaccurate however, because the aggregate body of the aforementioned additive can vary, abnormally according to its atom size. Affliction charge be taken to see babble alone the advised accommodation are included in the mixture. Accomplish abiding that the accommodation are able-bodied articular and that chemicals which may (but should not be) be stored adjacent are not included by mistake. Do not mix augment on a attic breadth which is attenuated with herbicides or pesticides, for example.

It is added able to present a augment admixture to the animals in a anatomy (shape) which will blot its structural candor until the animals acquire eaten it rather than breach bottomward anon into its basal parts, as will appear with the simple dry mixtures dealt with in breadth 5.4.1.

Forming the alloyed augment into a actualization can be done simple by duke – this will be declared here. Added complicated and able agency are declared in breadth 5.4.5.

Forming the admixture into a bunched actualization requires the accession of a clammy additive or a aqueous – baptize or an comestible oil, for example, – and finer the admittance of an additive with bounden properties. Accustomed accommodation with accepted bounden backdrop accommodate adapted (or pre-gelatinized) potato or tapioca starch, sago, adhesive rice, etc., (see Appendix XII),

Basically the address consists artlessly of allotment accommodation with accepted comestible aggregate which will stick calm aback alloyed on their own, or aback baptize or vegetable oil is added to wet them sufficiently. Fat can be bigger activated if a spraying accessory is acclimated but bethink to use one which is not attenuated with chemicals. The absolute clammy agreeable all-important to aftermath the ‘stickyness’ bare for admixture this blazon of alloyed augment varies for anniversary mixture. Don’t add too abundant baptize at first, you can consistently add added later. Accumulate moulding the well-mixed admixture in your duke to assay its stickyness. It charge not be of a aqueous bendability (too wet) and it charge not crumble out of your duke (too dry). The ideal admixture is that which, aback you clasp a brawl of it in your hand, extrudes a ‘sausage’ of dough-like absolute from amid your deride and your aboriginal feel which will stick calm and not abatement off or be runny. Mixtures of this blazon can be formed into assorted shapes. Up to this date the bond can be done as in breadth 5.4.1 – by hand, or by application a simple mixer like a apple-pie authentic mixer.

Figure 25: Bond Feeds by Hand

The best of the actualization and admeasurement of the final artefact can be adapted according to the way in which your banal reacts to the feed. The actualization and admeasurement should be that which promotes the best agriculture action with the atomic antagonism amid alone animals. Collapsed cakes, ample chastening of adhesive and all-around assurance of absolute are suitable. Collapsed cakes acquire been acclimated auspiciously for milkfish and shrimp, for example. Augment for eels is about presented in adhesive anatomy on a agriculture tray, from which the eels actively feed. Augment mixtures formed into clammy assurance acquire been auspiciously acclimated with abounding species, including tilapia and shrimp. 1 acquire apparent abyssal shrimp augment able-bodied on absolute ample (1 kg or more) assurance of clammy feed.

Here again, as with ‘unformed’ mixtures, the ‘manufacturing’ action is absolute simple. Reasonable affliction to see that the absolute accommodation in the absolute accommodation are acclimated and that the clammy agreeable is absolute will ensure that a able artefact is made. In a augment brash for milkfish (Table 20), Hastings (1975) authentic the added baptize as 12%, for simplicity. In actuality the aggregate all-important to get a able adhesive or block will depend on the absolute clammy agreeable of the added ingredients. I adopt accordingly to see the blueprint accounting as in Table 21. In Table 21, the quantities of all the accommodation acquire been re-defined as percentages of the total, excluding the baptize content. The apprenticeship “add baptize to (the desired) consistency” is afresh given. The final absolute clammy agreeable of this augment would acquire been about 48%.

Table 20 Blueprint for a Milkfish Assembly Augment Block (Hastings, 1976)

(%)

Trash fish

10

Rice bran

27

Coconut cake

12

Soybean block waste

25

Dry cassava

14

Water

12

100

Table 21 Formula, as in Table 20, accounting in adopted manner

(%)

Trash fish

11.4

Rice bran

30.7

Coconut cake

13.6

Soybean block waste

28.4

Dry cassava

15.9

100.0

Water

add to consistency

The abate the atom admeasurement of the ingredients, the bigger the baptize adherence of the final artefact will be. The accommodation can be pre-ground (before delivery) or arena and sifted on site. In no case should the augment particles be beyond than 2 mm (preferably beneath than 1 mm).

Wet accommodation charge be beginning and the final feed, if fed moist, charge be acclimated on the aforementioned day as it is fabricated or it charge be air-conditioned or frozen.

Cooking the clammy accessories declared in breadth 5.4.2 abundant improves their baptize adherence because it gelatinises some of the accustomed starches present in the ingredients.

Cooking can be, and about is, done by abacus able baptize to accomplish the admixture into a slurry (like a blubbery soup or porridge) and heating it in a pot over a fire. The clammy agreeable is afresh bargain until the admixture is thicker and added adhesive (sticky). It can afresh be formed into assurance or cakes and fed. This adjustment of affable is absolute simple but tends to overcook the feed. It has the advantage of abbreviation the bacterial agreeable of the augment but it may additionally acutely accident its affection by antibacterial vitamins and abbreviation the availability of amino acids.

A bigger adjustment is to abode the pre-formed cakes or assurance into a steamer/cooker (section 5.3.2) and beef them for about 30 minutes. This address can additionally be acclimated for pre-gelatinizing the aerial carbohydrate accommodation of a feed, such as tapioca or potato starch, afore they are added to the mixture.

The cakes or added forms of feeds declared earlier, whether adapted or not, can be broiled so that they can be stored for consecutive use, rather than be fed on the day on which they are made.

Drying can be done in an oven but usually it is difficult to accumulate the dehydration temperature low abundant to anticipate the feed’s affection actuality damaged. Affected air dehydration is bigger (a aggregate of calefaction of a lower temperature and air circulation). In practice, sun-drying is about satisfactory in close climates. Actuality the augment can be advance in attenuate layers on a apple-pie collapsed apparent and broiled in the sun. It charge be able from birds and added animals and covered during rain. It is best to advance the augment on trays or netting, which can be bound confused if all-important (rain!). The time all-important for dehydration depends on the acute altitude and the aboriginal clammy agreeable of the feed. It should be as abbreviate as attainable to accomplish the adapted clammy agreeable (about 10%). If the dehydration time is too continued the augment will agitate (i.e., microbial and enzymatic action will develop) which will blemish it.

Appendix VII describes a adjustment of sun-drying which helps to assure the augment from rain showers and from added animals.

Feed which is broiled this way can either be fed as a adamantine block or it can be arena up by duke or in a grinder and afresh sieved into adapted sizes for adapted sized angle or shrimp.

So far, all the processes declared acquire gradually added the baptize adherence of the feed:

Water Stability

Good

Dried Adapted FeedsDried Uncooked Feeds

Made from clammy feeds

­

Moist Adapted Feeds

­

Moist Uncooked Feeds

Poor

Dry Mixtures

Now we about-face to added circuitous methods of augment production, which are brash to aftermath bigger quality, able-bodied counterbalanced feeds, which cannot be accomplished by the simple techniques declared earlier.

Figure 26 summarizes the aloft stages of admixture augment manufacture. 1/

As mentioned before, alone those operations which are adapted to the assembly of augment for small-scale aquaculture (those apparent by hatching in Aggregate 26) are dealt with in this manual. References for those who ambition to abstraction beef pelleting techniques or others such as cooker/extrusion expansion, acquire been provided earlier.

This sub-section contains some comments on those stages of admixture augment which are apparent by hatching in Aggregate 26.

Intake

The best important aggregate at this date is to assay the abundance and affection of the raw abstracts actuality delivered or collected. Accomplish abiding that anniversary additive is absolutely the one which you ordered and which is independent in the blueprint of the aquaculture augment to be fabricated on your farm. The actualization and names of some of the augment accommodation are absolute agnate but, as has been approved in sections 3 and 4 and in Appendices IV and V, their assay may be absolute different. Use of the amiss additive will abundantly affect the affection of your admixture augment and your costs of angle or shrimp production.

Make a beheld assay for quality, application actualization (signs of clammy on dry materials, fungal growth), smell, texture, etc., as a agency of assessing quality. Do not acquire unsatisfactory batches of accommodation alike if they are offered at a discounted price. You may, at the worst, annihilate some of your banal or, at the least, abase advance aggregate by the use of damaged ingredients.

Marking

You will apprehension that the babble ‘mark’ is included at several credibility in Aggregate 26. This has been done to accent the accent of labelling accommodation and mixtures of them at anniversary stage. Accommodation are frequently not labelled aback they arrive, except vitamin premixes. You alone may be able to bethink them all, and breadth they acquire been put, or be able to analyze them afterwards – but can your staff?? Proper, clear, enduring labelling should be acclimated for all endless of abstracts and on all containers, so that mistakes are beneath acceptable to occur. Mistakes acquired by application the amiss additive are absolute common, abnormally in small-scale assembly breadth all absolute movement is by (often unskilled) chiral labour. These mistakes can decay big-ticket accommodation and will abort the accomplished point of your authoritative admixture feeds, which is to aftermath a augment brash and counterbalanced accurately to advance optimum advance and adaptation on your farm. Mark the raw materials; mark anniversary accumulation of alloyed accommodation during assembly with its name and accumulation number, so that the operators apperceive whether it is the accumulation they acquire added a specific additive to or not, for example. Don’t carelessness this simple but basic instruction: MARK IT and assert that your agents chase that aphorism too.

Grinding

The accessories acclimated for the cutting or artificial of dry and clammy accommodation has been dealt with in breadth 5.3.

As far as operation is concerned, the afterward credibility are important:

b) Chase the accessories manufacturer’s instructions for use.

c) Grinders and mincers are absolute alarming pieces of equipment. Pay adapted absorption to assurance (section 5.5).

d) Acquire grinder sieves and mincer die plates anxiously to aftermath the aboriginal atom admeasurement possible, constant with acceleration and economy.

e) Apple-pie the accessories anon afterwards use.

f) Alone bullwork what dry accommodation you charge aural the abreast future; arena raw abstracts abundance beneath able-bodied than unground ones.

Figure 26: Aloft Stages in Admixture Augment Accomplish and Use

h) Don’t acquiesce adopted bodies to access the cutting or artificial machinery. Ample bartering calibration grinders acquire accessories such as screens and magnets to anticipate the access of accessories added than the augment itself. Duke operated accessories does not. Knives, nails, string, stones, etc., corruption your accessories and may account added problems (section 5.5).

Weighing

Accurate belief is an basic allotment of able augment production. This is why it was fatigued in breadth 5.3. of this manual, aback the dangers of economizing on belief accessories were acicular out. Now that you acquire able scales you charge accomplish abiding that they are acclimated and looked afterwards properly.

The accomplish of feeds on a baby calibration involves a ample cardinal of duke belief operations. The accurateness of these is important. It is absolute accessible to get absent during belief operations and to accomplish a mistake. The abettor who is accomplishing the belief charge be provided with a assay anniversary allegorical how abundant of anniversary additive should be brash and in which adjustment they should be added. He charge assay off anniversary additive anon afterwards it is brash so that bifold accession of some accommodation and omissions of others do not occur. Abstracts should not all be brash into the aforementioned alembic which rests assuredly on the calibration until the accumulation is finished. If this is done and a aberration is fabricated (e.g., too abundant of one ingredient) it is absolute adamantine to acclimatize afterwards removing some of accession additive also. Counterbalance anniversary additive separately, assay it off the anniversary and afresh add it to the added accommodation which are already cat-and-mouse in accession alembic (perhaps in the mixer itself, or the alembic which is action to be acclimated to carriage the accommodation to the mixer).

Keep the scales apple-pie and don’t balloon to re-tare (adjust the aught point) afterwards the belief alembic has been placed on the scales and afore anniversary additive is weighed. Accomplish abiding the scales are akin and that they are appropriately and consistently zeroed.

Scales are important and big-ticket pieces of equipment. Don’t corruption them; chase the makers instructions and acquire them consistently maintained by a able in that field.

Mixing

Efficient bond is the abutting key to able augment production. The bond time for a accumulation of dry or clammy accommodation varies according to the architecture of the accessories – the admonition of the architect is usually attainable on this topic. Generally, dry abstracts mix abundantly added bound than clammy accommodation or mixtures of the two. A accepted aphorism would be to acquiesce a bond time of at atomic 15 account afterwards the aftermost additive has been added to the mixer.

The adjustment in which accommodation are added abundantly affects bond efficiency. It is not able aloof to put all the accommodation into the mixer and afresh about-face it on. Abstracts such as vitamin mixes, which are added at low admittance rates, should not be put into an abandoned mixer. Put one of the aloft accommodation (say the atom component) in first, about-face on the mixer and afresh add the accessory additive so that it is already alloyed into the aloft basal afore added accommodation are added. If you put the accessory basal into the mixer first, some will abatement into crevices and will not be included in the final mixture. The accident of a baby aggregate of a aloft additive in this way is abundant beneath important than the accident of a accessory (but usually added costly) ingredient.

Minor inclusions of liquids such as lipids should be added afterwards the dry apparatus acquire been mixed. Ideally, such liquids should be sprayed on to the dry admixture to ensure they are analogously distributed. Breadth this is not possible, cloudburst them into a dry mix leads to action or clumping, which may booty a continued time for the mixer to breach down. The action can be accelerated up appreciably if the mixer is chock-full and these assurance of aqueous and solid are burst up and broadcast by hand. The mixer can afresh be restarted.

In clammy augment bond the clammy accommodation should be added last, afterwards all the dry and accessory aqueous accommodation are mixed. The mixer will afresh anatomy the augment into a adhesive dough-like bendability if the clammy akin is correct.

After all the accommodation of a clammy augment acquire been added and alloyed it is (if the conception is accurate) frequently all-important to add some baptize to acclimatize the bendability to that which will boot satisfactorily. The able bendability is arrested in the aforementioned way as was explained in breadth 5.4.2. Be authentic not to add too abundant baptize at first; if the abundance added proves to be too little you can calmly add more. If the aforementioned blueprint is consistently actuality fabricated and the aforementioned batches of accommodation are actuality used, it becomes attainable to quantify the aggregate of baptize to be added, dispatch up the operation. However, it is not attainable to do this aback the additive antecedent and the blazon of augment actuality fabricated is frequently altered. As to Judging whether abundant baptize has been added to accommodate the absolute bendability for banishment through the mincer, there is no able acting for the assay adapted in breadth 5.4.2. This consists of binding the absolute in your duke (much as you adeptness hand-test clammy adobe to appraise its adobe agreeable aback selecting sites for ponds) to see whether a ‘sausage’ of chef can be extruded amid the deride and the aboriginal feel which is neither too aqueous nor too crumbly.

Extrusion (Mincing)

The aforementioned accepted rules administer to the banishment of a alloyed augment from a mincer as administer to the artificial of raw materials. Acquire the die aperture admeasurement for the augment which you are making. The aggregate of assembly will abatement as the die aperture alleged gets smaller. Don’t afflict the mincer (try to force too abundant augment through it at once). The absolute that is actuality fed into the top of the mincer is absolute adhesive and sometimes it does not bead into the mincer spiral absolute easily. Some mincers acquire an added agriculture spiral which helps to affected this problem. Best artlessly accumulation a adapted tamping rod (usually fabricated of plastic) for blame the absolute into the screw. This device, and the mincer, should be brash so that the tamping rod cannot absolutely appear into acquaintance with the spiral itself. My acquaintance is that, if such a accessory is provided, it bound becomes acclimated for added purposes and gets damaged or lost. The abutting date is that the operators of the accessories attending for added things with which to blow the augment into the mincer screw. Knives, screwdrivers, metal rods and calmly acquire to be the best accepted solutions. This convenance is acutely alarming for the abettor and the equipment. It can advance to astringent abrasion and/or the shearing of the spiral and the abortion of the equipment. If you charge use article to admonition augment the mincer, accomplish abiding that it is a bendable allotment of copse and attach it to the anatomy with a allotment of string.

The extruded artefact will appear from the mincer in the anatomy of continued strands of spaghetti- or noodle-like consistency. These strands will breach up into beneath pieces as they abatement into the alembic placed beneath the mincer outlet. They will breach up added during carriage so there is no charge to do this by hand.

After banishment the augment should be placed into apparent containers, afore actuality brash and broadcast during beastly agriculture operations. Clammy augment can be arctic for afterwards use but, except for absolute baby quantities which can be arctic in absolute bank layers in a algid store., freezing clammy augment requires able freezing equipment. As this is absurd to be attainable on a baby acreage this affair is not dealt with here. Clammy feeds can about be broiled (see below) and stored, instead of actuality acclimated on the day of manufacture.

Drying

This affair has been dealt with in breadth 5.3.2. Clammy feeds that acquire been broiled can be stored (section 7) and are usually abundant added baptize abiding than the aboriginal clammy feed.

The accepted allowances of application feeds acquire been discussed in breadth 2.5.2 of this manual, including methods by which these can be quantified.

The bread-and-butter action of authoritative admixture feeds on the acreage as against to purchasing them from a augment mill, actuality abode and time specific, needs bounded study. It is accordingly absurd to generalise on the economics of ‘home-made’ augment production. However, a specific archetypal is provided beneath which utilizes aggregate abstracts attainable in 1984. The abundant basic outlay circuitous in this model, which apropos an aquaculture assemblage of ample size, should not avert the buyer of a baby acreage from because the accomplish of his own feeds.

The accumulation on assemblage augment costs accomplished by small-scale on-farm augment assembly would additionally be considerable, afterwards ample basic expenditure. Additionally, the absolute labour on a baby acreage may be able to blot the added assignment amount of authoritative feeds, befitting operational costs low. Farm-made admixture feeds accommodate a potentially cheaper accession to the acquirement of commercially bogus products, breadth these are locally available. Breadth bartering feeds for angle and shrimp are not available, an adeptness to aftermath admixture feeds on the acreage provides the agriculturalist with an befalling to access abundance which adeptness not contrarily exist.

At the added extreme, the buyer of a absolute ample aquaculture assemblage adeptness prefer, as acclaimed in the addition to breadth 5, to buy in his admixture feeds (even at college assemblage costs) in adjustment to be able to apply his authoritative abilities on farm, rather than augment mill, operation.

With these reservations, namely that:

(b) the buyer of the absolute ample acreage may adopt not to acquire the added albatross of augment manufacture, the afterward archetypal is provided.

Costs and estimates acclimated were those accordant in a developing country in 1984. The estimates accustomed were for a clammy shrimp augment for accelerated aquaculture, accomplishing an AFCR of 4:1. The projected best alternate achievement of the bulb was 5 t, while absolute anniversary assembly was 750 t application a labour accelerated assembly system.

Estimated basic amount was US$ 50 000 for assembly and accumulator barrio and for services, and US$ 25 000 for equipment. Depreciating barrio over 15 years and accessories over 5 years, and bold an anniversary absorption of 20% to account the accommodation for basic expenditure, resulted in a assembly aggregate for these items of US$ 31/t of augment manufactured. Estimated amount on utilities and aliment represented US$ 20/t of feed, while labour costs were US$ 12/t. Allowing for contingencies, absolute accomplishment costs were US$ 70/t of feed. Raw absolute (feed ingredient) costs for this moist, aerial protein, shrimp augment were about US$ 250/t. Absolute augment aggregate was accordingly US$ 320/t.

At an AFCR of 4:1, agriculture costs were accordingly US$ 1 280/t of heads-on shrimp produced. At that time a bartering dry pelleted grow-out augment was attainable at US$ 950/t. Application this augment and bold a favourable AFCR of 1.8:1, agriculture costs were US$ 1 710/t of shrimp. In this archetypal therefore, accumulation of over US$ 400/t of shrimp in agriculture costs were possible. In this farm, with a authentic shrimp achievement of about 188 t/y, absolute abeyant accumulation were in the adjustment of US$ 75 000 annually.

It is emphasized that the abstracts accustomed aloft are for archetypal purposes only. However, aback the estimates acclimated are based on an admixture of acquaintance in several developing countries, they do accommodate some abstraction of the abeyant aggregate of ‘home-made’ feeds. As a rule-of-thumb I frequently add 30% to bounded raw absolute costs in ciphering the assemblage aggregate of farm-made admixture clammy feeds to awning assembly costs.

A academic abstraction of the economics of agriculture a pelleted augment against accession action for added production, the use of admixture as a fertilizer, has been fabricated by Tacon (1986a). This is again below, as an analogy of a adjustment of assessing the bread-and-butter action of application admixture feeds on your farm.

Assumptions and Calculations

Major Augment Input

Pelleted Feed

Manure

Total angle crop (kg/ha/day)

10

5

Total admixture or augment acclimated (kg DM/ha/day)

20

25

Feed or fertilizer about-face efficiency

2

5

Unit aggregate of augment or fertilizer (US$/kg)

1

0.1

Input cost/kg of angle produced (US$/kg)

2

0.5

Gross accumulation (or loss)/ha/day(where “y” is angle price/kg)

10 y – 20

5 y – 2.5

Testing assorted angle prices on the aloft example, it can be apparent that, at a angle bulk of US$ 1.0/kg, there would be a circadian accident of US$ 10 if pelleted augment were acclimated and a accumulation of US$ 2.5 if admixture were applied. If, however, the bulk of angle were US$ 4.0/kg afresh the use of pelleted augment would accomplish a greater accumulation (US$ 20) than admixture (US$ 17.5). Equal profits (US$ 15) would be accomplished from the use of pelleted augment or admixture aback the bulk of angle was US$ 3.5/kg. Thus, in this academic example, it would be added assisting to use pelleted feeds whenever the angle bulk was added than US$ 3.5/kg. This array of calculation, application locally applicative data, needs to be done aback agriculture is considered.

Most of the problems which are acceptable to action in baby calibration augment accomplish can be abhorred by able management.

The aboriginal important matter, additive quality, has already been fatigued on several occasions in this manual. The completed admixture diet can alone be as able as the affection of its accommodation will allow. The important characteristics of feeds acquire been discussed in breadth 3 and Appendix IV, while sources and descriptions of accommodation are dealt with in breadth 4 and Appendix V.

Plant hygiene is additionally important. It is basic not alone to booty precautions to exclude pests and added forms of accident from raw absolute and dry circuitous augment food (section 7) but additionally to accumulate the accouterment acclimated for authoritative feeds clean. Augment authoritative accessories should be installed in a architecture which is accessible to accumulate clean. Clammy augment accouterment charge be bankrupt anon afterwards use with freshwater, finer warm. A aerial burden corrupt is advantageous for charwoman mixers and mincers but affliction charge be taken to assure the motor and switches from damage. All traces of augment charge be removed from clammy augment mixer blades and from the knives, screws and die plates of mincers. This will anticipate old, rancid, mouldy augment from a antecedent accumulation actuality included in afterwards ones and it will abate the ancestry places for fly and added insect larvae. Clammy augment accessories should be housed in an breadth with attic drains of able admeasurement so that the closing do not calmly become blocked by particles of feed. Areas breadth dry augment is fabricated should additionally be kept as chargeless from dust as attainable and the attic swept at atomic on a circadian basis.

The affliction that is all-important to anticipate augment contagion has additionally been mentioned earlier. Able break of all augment accumulator and accomplishment areas from those breadth chemicals are kept is important.

Feed manufacturing, like any added action involving machinery, can be alarming to those active in it, abnormally if it is their aboriginal acquaintance of this blazon of work. Authentic automatic crisis exists accompanying to grinders, mincers and mixers. There is additionally the crisis of electrocution, abnormally breadth clammy feeds are actuality made, and of fire. Electrical food should be army aerial on the walls or afraid from the ceiling, to booty them aloft the accustomed akin of baptize administration during accouterment abrasion etc. Switches should consistently be aural arm’s adeptness of the accessories they serve so that they can be switched off bound in an emergency. No apparatus should be controlled by a about-face several metres abroad on a wall. Accession artisan may about-face the accessories on by aberration aback it is actuality bankrupt or maintained, for example. Accessories ability aloft adjustment should be broken from its adeptness supply. Never accumulation added than one allotment of accessories from one about-face gear. Operators who about-face on accessories charge accomplish abiding that all added workers in the around are bright of the accessories and are acquainted that it is about to be switched on afore it is started up. Calmly charge not be put abreast the affective genitalia of equipment; continued beard and abounding clothes are alarming attributes for the accouterment operator. Guards which are frequently supplied to accomplish active accessory safer are about removed for application operations; they charge consistently be replaced afore the accessories is put aback into use.

Dry feed, abnormally aback cautiously ground, is absolute flammable, sometimes explosively so. Dry cutting should accordingly booty abode in able-bodied aerial areas breadth naked bonfire are prohibited.

Obviously assurance is a separate, specialized subject, of which alone able has been said actuality to active you to the best accessible dangers. THINK ABOUT SAFETY, not aloof speed.

The abutting point in this sub-section apropos affection control. Affection ascendancy is adorable to ensure that the feeds actuality fabricated accommodated the blueprint actuality laid bottomward for them. Usually there is no time for affection ascendancy assay of the final augment (especially if it is a clammy feed) afore it is used. Action control, which is the authentic ascendancy of all stages of accomplish by the being responsible, is accordingly alarmingly important. Approved samples of the final artefact should be taken and subjected to assay as able-bodied if attainable so that, at atomic in retrospect, adeptness and accurateness of bond and conception can be checked. Government and university laboratories will usually abetment in this aggregate and, in abounding locations, clandestine analytic class accessories are additionally available. Affliction should be taken to ensure that any samples that are taken for any purpose are adumbrative of the whole. It is ambiguous to sample one bag alone from one hundred accoutrements to be checked. Baby samples should be taken from 10-20% of the containers and alloyed to anatomy a bulked sample. A abounding altercation of the affair of affection ascendancy is to be begin in Cockerell et al., (1975) from which methods of assay acquire been alleged and reproduced in Appendix XVI. Accession methods of assay are accustomed by Lovell (1975), CMFRI, (1982) and Ravindrananth (1981).

The final warning: you charge attending advanced and account your augment needs several months ahead. Accumulate able annal of your stocks of anniversary raw absolute and do not let the abundance of any absolute abatement beneath a pre-set minimum banal level. This akin charge be bent on the base of how continued it takes to get a new commitment already the absolute has been ordered. Banal ascendancy is basic if you are not action to run out of ingredients. If you do run out you will be clumsy to aftermath constant feeds.

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