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Figures 2 shows accurateness (Fig. 2a) and acknowledgment times (Fig. 2b) as a action of the cardinal of elements back amid on the vertices of simple shapes (red symbols) or accidental (green symbols). The after-effects announce decidedly faster RTs and college accurateness back the agreement of elements was shape-like rather than accidental (compare red and blooming symbols). Further, RTs added and accurateness decreased as the cardinal of elements increased.



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Results of Agreement 1. Accurateness (a) and acknowledgment times (b) as a action of cardinal of elements back elements were amid on the vertices of simple shapes (red) or accidental (green). (c) Admirable boilerplate ERPs burst beyond cardinal of elements, for appearance (red) and accidental (green) configurations. The ERPs are an boilerplate of the six channels (P7, P8, PO5, PO6, PO7, & PO8) acclimated to quantify the N1 and N2 apparatus and highlights the N2 aftereffect amid 250 and 400 ms afterwards bang access (yellow arena and aberration cartography amid all appearance and accidental conditions). Dejected regions represent TANOVA differences amid appearance and accidental agreement stimuli. (d) Admirable boilerplate ERPs burst beyond spatial agreement for altered cardinal of elements. The ERPs are an boilerplate of the LMF assay electrodes (FC1, FC3, C1, and C3) amid 400 and 650 ms (yellow arena and aberration topography). The aberration topography, for graphical purposes, is the aberration amid low (3, 4) bare aerial (5, 6) cardinal of elements irrespective of spatial configuration. TANOVA differences (blue regions) are additionally for low against aerial cardinal of elements. (e) Microstate assay of admirable averaged ERPs for all eight conditions. Horizontally aggressive confined appearance abiding microstates and the point in time back they change for anniversary action (R3—random agreement with 3 elements, through to S6—shape agreement with 6 elements). Anniversary map is represented by a altered colour. Further, All-around Acreage Ability (GFP) waveforms, a admeasurement of differences in the attic electric acreage strength, are displayed for a beheld allegory to topographic microstates which are absolute of acreage strength. (f) Topographic microstates acquired from the assay action for three maps which best fit the alone accountable data. Topographic maps appearance the arch from aloft with nasion advised upward.

A two-way afresh measures ANOVA with factors spatial agreement (shape vs. random) and cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6) arise a cogent capital aftereffect of spatial agreement (F(1,18) = 78.332, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.813 for accuracy; F(1,18) = 27.289, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.603 for RTs) with faster RT and college accurateness for appearance compared to accidental configuration. The aftereffect of cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 49.351, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.733 for accuracy; F(3,54) = 23.608, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.567 for RTs) was additionally significant. In addition, a cogent alternation aftereffect for RTs (F(3,54) = 23.019, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.561) but not for accurateness (F(3,54) = 2.023, p = 0.122, η2 = 0.101) was found. Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc assay on the RTs abstracts was agitated out to appraise the cogent alternation effect. This arise that all pairwise comparisons were statistically cogent (p < 0.0001) except comparisons amid 3 and 4 elements and amid 5 and 6 elements, irrespective of their spatial configuration. Thus, RT abstracts was apparent to abstracted low from aerial numeric quantities (3, 4 vs. 5, 6) irrespective of their spatial configuration. Overall, these after-effects advance that appearance configurations facilitate cardinal estimation.



The ERPs averages beyond cardinal of elements for the appearance and accidental configurations are apparent in Fig. 2c and afar by cardinal in Fig. S1a (see Supplementary Information). The ERPs agnate to altered cardinal of elements, averaged beyond spatial configuration, are apparent in Fig. 2d, and afar for anniversary action in Fig. S1b (see Supplementary Information). These after-effects announce a beyond negativity between ~ 200 and 400 ms for accidental than appearance configurations (compare red and blooming curve in Fig. 2c).



A repeated-measures ANOVA archetypal with factors spatial agreement (shape vs. random), cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6), hemisphere (left vs. appropriate electrode locations) and electrode (P7, PO5, PO7 vs. P8, PO6, PO8) agitated out on the N1 basic (160–220 ms) arise that beggarly N1 amplitude added with shape-like configurations in allegory to accidental (F(1,18) = 8.869, p = 0.008, η2 = 0.33) and with the cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 4.833, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.212). There was additionally a cogent capital aftereffect of hemisphere (F(1,18) = 12.907, p = 0.002, η2 = 0.418), assuming that N1 beggarly amplitude was bigger over appropriate occipital/parietal locations. This area aberration appears to be apprenticed in allotment by the beyond amplitudes for appearance agreement in the appropriate hemisphere (F(1,18) = 4.872, p = 0.041, η2 = 0.213). Finally, there was a cogent alternation amid the agreement and cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 4.638, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.205). Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc assay arise that this alternation aftereffect was apprenticed predominantly by the ample access in N1 amplitude for three elements placed in a triangle compared to accidental agreement (p < 0.0001), with no added multiple-comparisons actuality statistically cogent (p > 0.05). In sum, the N1 amplitude, which was acute in the appropriate hemisphere, was added by appearance configurations, and additionally by the atomic cardinal of elements in the stimulus.

For the afterwards N2 basic (250–400 ms), a cogent capital aftereffect of agreement was begin (F(1,18) = 105.655, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.854) advertence that appearance agreement elicits added N2 amplitudes in allegory to accidental configurations (Fig. 2c; additionally Fig. S1a in the Supplementary Information). This was accompanied by a baby access in N2 amplitude with the cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 4.36, p = 0.031, η2 = 0.195)—see Fig. S1a in the Supplementary Information. There was no cogent alternation aftereffect amid spatial agreement and cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 2.161, p = 0.128, η2 = 0.107). Like the N1 component, N2 amplitude was additionally acute in the appropriate hemisphere (F(1,18) = 7.218, p = 0.015, η2 = 0.286). This hemisphere aftereffect interacted with spatial agreement suggesting a beyond access in amplitude for appearance configurations in the appropriate compared to the larboard hemisphere electrodes (F(1,18) = 5.554, p = 0.03, η2 = 0.226). Finally, we begin a ambiguous three-way alternation amid configuration, cardinal of elements and hemisphere (F(3,54) = 2.828, p = 0.049, η2 = 0.136), which appears to be apprenticed by a statistically cogent aftereffect of the about broadcast elements in the larboard hemisphere sites alone (p = 0.011).

The ANOVA archetypal for the LMF basic (400–650 ms) consisted of the factors agreement (shape vs. random), elements (3, 4, 5, 6) and electrode (FC1, FC3, C1, C3). Again, shape-like configurations produced beyond amplitudes than accidental (F(1,18) = 15.599, p = 0.0001, η2 = 0.464), and the LMF appeared to abstracted the cardinal of elements in the bang (F(3,54) = 23.03, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.561), with greater LMF amplitude empiric for stimuli absolute a low cardinal in allegory to aerial cardinal of elements (Fig. 2d; additionally Fig. S1b in the Supplementary Information). Post-hoc analyses arise that all differences amid cardinal of elements were cogent (all p’s < 0.05) except, interestingly, amid stimuli with 5 or 6 elements (p > 0.05) which is constant with the RT data. No added cogent furnishings were found.

In adjustment to map the time advance of ERP differences that abide abiding over time, we conducted commutual TANOVA comparisons amid all appearance and accidental configurations, averaged beyond the cardinal of elements (see ablaze dejected areas in Fig. 2c). In adverse dejected areas in Fig. 2d shows TANOVA differences amid low (3, 4) and aerial (5, 6) numeric quantities, averaged beyond appearance configuration. TANOVA after-effects advance a ample aeon of topographic differences for appearance against accidental configurations amid 194 and 464 ms. For assessing cardinal of elements we aggregate altitude on low (3 and 4) against aerial (5 and 6) numeric quantities, irrespective of their spatial configuration. This assay arise differences from 301 to 384 ms, and continuing at 392 ms until the end of the epoch. Importantly, TANOVA after-effects congenital the time windows articular for ERP beggarly amplitude assay of the N2 (250–400 ms) for appearance configurations and the LMF (400–650 ms) for cardinal of elements. These TANOVA after-effects advance topographic differences that absorb the time ambit of the N2 and LMF components, but critically, do not abstract amid the altered topographic states.

To added analyze the empiric TANOVA differences and their affiliation to appearance agreement and cardinal of elements, we ran a microstate assay assay beyond the grand-averaged ERPs for all eight altitude of Agreement 1 (Fig. 2e,f). In agreement of all-around explained about-face (GEV), over the N1 time window the attendance of one map (which we appellation N11a) bedeviled the segmentation. GEV for N11a was subjected to a afresh measures ANOVA of spatial agreement (shape vs. random) and cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6). The N11a map best adapted altitude with a low cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 4.166, p = 0.019, η2 = 0.188), yet post-hoc assay of the cardinal of elements arise no cogent differences amid pairs of elements (all p’s > 0.05). Thus, the N11a map was not accompanying to changes in appearance agreement or the cardinal of elements, implying that processes in the N1 time window are all-encompassing for all altitude of the experiment. Considering that TANOVA fails to acquisition topographic differences in the N1 range, it is of no abruptness that the alone appreciable aberration in N1 cartography is due to electric acreage backbone rather than differences in topographic distribution.

Over the N2 time window, three maps were acutely observable: the N11a map and two added maps which we characterization N21a and LMF1a appropriately (Fig. 2e,f). Back Map is included as a agency in the ANOVA model, no aberration was empiric amid all three maps (N11a, N21a, LMF1a). There was a capital aftereffect of agreement such that anniversary map explained added about-face for appearance configurations compared to accidental (F(1,18) = 21.634, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.546). Importantly, a cogent map by appearance alternation was begin (F(2,36) = 12.213, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.404), and added assay arise that the appearance against accidental agreement aftereffect is apprenticed by the N11a map predominantly (F(1,18) = 23.807, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.569), with this map answer added about-face for appearance compared to random, while the N21a map was aloof to spatial agreement (F(1,18) = 0.672, p = 0.423, η2 = 0.036). Hence the N11a map responds preferentially to appearance configurations in the N2 time window. Note that the attendance of the N11a map in the N2 time window is not unusual, but reflects the labelling of anniversary microstate by the aboriginal point in time back they action in affiliation to ERP time windows (see “Methods”). Finally, in the time window for assay of the LMF (400–650 ms), both N21a and LMF1a maps were present and analysed accordingly. Critically, N21a was begin to be aloof to the cardinal of elements and additionally shape-like configurations (all p’s > 0.05). The LMF1a map however, dissociated amid the cardinal of elements in the stimulus, appropriately answer added about-face in alone actor abstracts for altitude with a low cardinal of elements compared to aerial (F(3,54) = 3.472, p = 0.026, η2 = 0.162).

In sum, the microstate assay allegation appearance that microstates N11a in the N2 time window (250–400 ms) indexed the backbone of the appearance against accidental agreement effect, while the LMF1a map dissociates amid the cardinal of elements in the stimuli.

We added advised the aftereffect of the cardinal of appearance vertices (or appearance complexity) absolute of the cardinal of elements by utilizing the atomic circuitous appearance (triangle) sampled by the abounding ambit of elements. Accurateness (Fig. 3a) and acknowledgment times (Fig. 3b) are apparent as a action of the cardinal of elements for the triangle (red symbols) or accidental (green symbols) configurations.

Results of Agreement 2. Accurateness (a) and acknowledgment times (b) as a action of cardinal of elements back elements were amid on the vertices of an boxlike triangle (red) or accidental (green). (c) Admirable boilerplate ERPs burst beyond cardinal of elements for triangle (red) and accidental (green) configurations. The ERPs are an boilerplate of the six electrodes (P7, P8, PO5, PO6, PO7, PO8) acclimated to quantify the N1 and N2 apparatus and highlights the N2 aftereffect analysed amid 250 and 400 ms afterwards bang access (yellow arena and aberration cartography amid all appearance and accidental conditions). Dejected regions represent periods of abiding topographic differences bent by the TANOVA. (d) Admirable boilerplate ERPs burst beyond spatial agreement for altered cardinal of elements. The ERP waveforms, averaged beyond electrodes FC1, FC3, C1, and C3, affectation an aftereffect of numeric abundance amid 400 and 650 ms (yellow arena and aberration topography) over mid-left aboveboard electrode sites. The aberration cartography is the aberration amid low (3, 4) bare aerial (5, 6) cardinal of elements, irrespective of spatial configuration. TANOVA (blue regions) additionally represent differences amid low (3, 4) against aerial (5, 6) cardinal of elements. (e) Access and offsets of topographic microstates for all eight conditions. Horizontally aggressive confined appearance the point in time back microstate periods change for anniversary action of the agreement (R3—random agreement with 3 elements, through to S6—triangle agreement with 6 elements). Anniversary map is represented by a altered colour. All-around Acreage Ability waveforms are displayed for a beheld allegory to topographic microstates. (f) Four topographic microstates acquired from the assay action which best fit the alone accountable data. Topographic maps appearance the arch from aloft with nasion advised upward.

A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with factors spatial agreement (triangle vs. random) and cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6) arise a cogent capital aftereffect of cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 28.455, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.613 for accuracy; F(3,54) = 34.627, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.658 for RTs), suggesting that accretion the cardinal of elements leads to all-embracing bargain accuracy, and best RTs. The aftereffect of spatial agreement was not cogent (F(1,18) = 4.398, p = 0.050, η2 = 0.196 for accuracy; F(1,18) = 0.023, p = 0.88, η2 = 0.001 for RTs). However, the alternation aftereffect was cogent for both accurateness (F(3,54) = 24.809, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.580) and RTs (F(3,54) = 19.362, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.518). Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc assay on both accurateness and RTs abstracts arise that all pairwise comparisons were statistically cogent (p < 0.0001), except comparisons amid 4 and 5 elements, irrespective of their spatial configuration.

The boilerplate ERPs acquired with triangle and accidental configurations are apparent in Fig. 3c, and afar for anniversary cardinal of elements in Fig. S1c (see Supplementary Information). The ERPs agnate to altered cardinal of elements, averaged beyond spatial configuration, are apparent in Fig. 3d, and for anniversary agreement in Fig. S1d (see Supplementary Information). As in Agreement 1, we analysed factors of agreement (triangle vs. random), cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6), hemisphere (left vs. right) and electrode (P7, PO5, PO7 vs. P8, PO6, PO8) for the N1 and the afterwards N2 components.

The N1 basic was added in amplitude for triangle than accidental configurations (F(1,18) = 54.686, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.752), and additionally added with the cardinal of elements in the bang (F(3,54) = 4.677, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.206). Agnate to Agreement 1, the bigger N1 amplitudes were empiric in the appropriate hemisphere electrode sites (F(1,18) = 8.822, p = 0.008, η2 = 0.329). No alternation furnishings were begin in the N1 range.

In the N2 range, triangle configurations elicited a beyond negativity than accidental configurations (F(1,18) = 50.049, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.735). Like the N1 component, N2 amplitude was bigger in appropriate hemisphere electrodes (F(1,18) = 6.193, p = 0.023, η2 = 0.256). There was no cogent capital aftereffect of the cardinal of elements, however, there was an alternation amid spatial agreement and cardinal of elements (F(3,54) = 4.875, p = 0.009, η2 = 0.213), such that the bigger N2 amplitudes were empiric for triangle configurations with a low cardinal of elements (compare red/orange curve with dark/light blooming curve in Fig. S1c in the Supplementary Information).

To investigate the LMF basic (400–650 ms), we ran an ANOVA archetypal with factors of spatial agreement (triangle vs. random), cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6) and electrode (FC1, FC3, C1, C3). The assay arise beyond LMF beggarly amplitude for triangle configurations in allegory with the accidental altitude (F(1,18) = 11.013, p = 0.004, η2 = 0.38), and critically, the LMF additionally afar the cardinal of elements in the bang (F(3,54) = 28.042, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.609), with an changed accord amid LMF amplitude and cardinal of elements (Fig. 3d; see additionally Fig. S1d in the Supplementary Information). This acclimation by numerosity was axiomatic in post-hoc analyses, with cogent differences amid all numbers of elements (all p’s < 0.05), except for 5 and 6 elements (p = 0.918). No added cogent furnishings were begin in the LMF range.

TANOVA assay arise topographic differences amid triangle and accidental configurations, averaged beyond the cardinal of elements, during the N2 time window (198 to 408 ms; dejected black arena in Fig. 3c). In adverse Fig. 3d shows TANOVA differences amid low (3, 4) and aerial (5, 6) numeric quantities, averaged beyond appearance configuration. This TANOVA assay arise a ample abiding topographic aberration amid low and aerial cardinal of elements starting at 335 ms and abiding until the end of the epoch, which afresh encompasses our assay of the LMF (blue black arena in Fig. 3d). These after-effects advance topographic differences that absorb the time ambit of the N2 and LMF components, but critically, do not abstract amid the altered topographic states.

Microstate assay assay (Fig. 3e) arise the attendance of one map about the N1 range, which we appellation N12a (Fig. 3f). This map explained added variance, back fit to the alone actor data, for triangle compared to accidental configurations (F(1,18) = 19.05, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.514). This N12a map explained no added differences in alone actor data.

Over the N2 time-window, the attendance of three maps was empiric in the assay which were labelled as N12a, N22a, and N22b (Fig. 3e,f). We begin a capital aftereffect of map (F(2,36) = 10.654, p = 0.003, η2 = 0.372) which arise that the N22a map explained the atomic about-face in allegory to N12a and N22b maps (post-hoc analyses showed all p’s < 0.02). No differences were begin amid N12a and N22b (p = 0.114). Although there was no cogent capital aftereffect for triangle configurations, we begin a cogent alternation amid map and agreement (F(2,36) = 6.768, p = 0.012, η2 = 0.273). Added assay of this alternation showed that map N12a explains added about-face in the abstracts for triangle configurations compared to accidental altitude (F(1,18) = 9.471, p = 0.006, η2 = 0.345), admitting no cogent aftereffect of agreement for N22a and N22b could be begin aural the N2 time-window.

Segmentation assay arise two microstates present in the time window for assay of the LMF, which we accept termed the N22a and LMF2a maps (Fig. 3f). Interestingly, while the attendance of the LMF2a map appears alone in altitude absolute three elements (which consistently aftermath either an boxlike triangle or scalene triangle), we begin no differences in allegorical ability of the two maps. In fact, we begin a capital aftereffect of spatial agreement (F(1,18) = 7.497, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.294), suggesting that both maps bigger explain triangle than accidental configurations. There was no cogent alternation aftereffect amid map blazon and spatial configuration. However, an alternation amid map blazon and cardinal of elements was begin (F(3,54) = 7.076, p = 0.009, η2 = 0.282). Consecutive assay arise that the assay was bedeviled by the N22a map which extends from N2 time-window, and which explained best about-face in individuals for triangle configurations (F(1,18) = 4.872, p = 0.041, η2 = 0.213). The LMF2a map best fit altitude of 3 elements alone (all p’s ≤ 0.011) in allegory to 4, 5 or 6 elements, irrespective of agreement (F(3,54) = 11.66, p = 0.001, ήp2 = 0.393). Thus, both N22a and LMF2a maps bigger fit triangle than accidental configurations. No added cogent furnishings were begin in the assay analysis.

Accuracy (Fig. 4a) and acknowledgment time (Fig. 4b) abstracts announce alone baby differences amid aforementioned and altered luminance-polarity stimuli (compare red and blooming symbols in Fig. 4a,b). A two-way afresh measures ANOVA with factors luminance polarity (same vs. different) and cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6) arise a cogent capital aftereffect of luminance polarity (F(1,17) = 5.268, p = 0.035, η2 = 0.237 for accuracy; F(1,17) = 6.248, p = 0.023, η2 = 0.269 for RTs) and cardinal of elements (F(3,51) = 14.154, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.454 for accuracy; F(3,51) = 24.157, p < 0.0001, η2 = 0.587 for RTs). There was no cogent alternation aftereffect (F(3,51) = 0.356, p = 0.785, η2 = 0.021 for accuracy; F(3,51) = 2.669, p = 0.057, η2 = 0.136 for RTs). Added assay into luminance polarity furnishings by comparing aforementioned and altered polarity altitude for according cardinal of elements arise that none of the assorted comparisons were cogent (for accuracy: all p’s > 0.999; RTs: all p’s > 0.0733). In sum, we begin baby but cogent beggarly differences amid accumulated aforementioned against altered polarity altitude for accurateness (mean aberration of 1.4%, SEM = 0.006) and RTs (mean aberration of 7 ms, SEM = 0.003), best acceptable apprenticed by the baby about-face about these accumulated beggarly differences, which becomes beyond back breach into alone altitude (smaller cardinal of trials increases the affected variance).

Results of Agreement 3. Accurateness (a) and acknowledgment times (b) as a action of cardinal of elements for aforementioned (red) and altered (green) luminance polarity conditions. (c) Admirable boilerplate ERPs burst beyond cardinal of elements for aforementioned (red) and altered (green) luminance-polarity conditions. The ERPs are an boilerplate of the six channels (P7, P8, PO5, PO6, PO7, & PO8) acclimated to quantify the N1 and N2 apparatus and highlights the N2 aftereffect amid 250 and 400 ms afterwards bang access (yellow arena and aberration cartography amid all aforementioned and altered polarity conditions). The dejected regions announce periods of abiding topographic differences bent by TANOVA. (d) Admirable boilerplate ERPs burst beyond luminance polarity for altered cardinal of elements. These ERPs are an boilerplate over electrodes FC1, FC3, C1, and C3, and appearance the LMF amid 400 and 650 ms (yellow arena and aberration topography). The attic cartography is the aberration amid low (3, 4) bare aerial (5, 6) cardinal of elements. TANOVA (blue regions) are additionally for low (3, 4) against aerial (5, 6) cardinal of elements. (e) Topographic microstates of admirable averaged ERPs for all eight conditions. Horizontally aggressive confined appearance the microstates through time for anniversary action (D3—different polarity stimuli with 3 elements, through to S6—same polarity stimuli with 6 elements). Anniversary map is represented by a altered colour. All-around Acreage Ability waveforms are displayed for a beheld allegory to topographic microstates. (f) Four topographic microstates acquired from the assay action which best fit the alone accountable data. Topographic maps appearance the arch from aloft with nasion advised upward.

The ERPs acquired with aforementioned and altered polarity configurations are apparent in Fig. 4c, averaged beyond cardinal of elements, admitting ERPs agnate to altered cardinal of elements conditions, irrespective of their polarity are apparent in Fig. 4d. Afar waveforms for anniversary cardinal of elements conditions, averaged beyond electrodes acclimated in the assay of N1 and N2, and the LMF, appropriately are apparent in Fig. S1e,f in the Supplementary Information.

We ran an ANOVA archetypal with factors luminance polarity (same vs. different), cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6), hemisphere (left vs. appropriate electrode locations) and electrode (P7, PO5, PO7 vs. P8, PO6, PO8) for the N1 and the afterwards N2 component. The assay arise no cogent differences in the N1 range. In the N2 time-window of 250–400 ms, we begin a cogent aftereffect of luminance polarity (F(1,17) = 8.52, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.334), with altered luminance polarity stimuli eliciting an added negativity (compare blooming and red curve in Fig. 4c, and Fig. S1e in the Supplementary Information). No added cogent furnishings were found.

For the LMF component, the ANOVA assay with factors luminance polarity (same vs. different), cardinal of elements (3, 4, 5, 6) and electrode (FC1, FC3, C1, C3) arise no aftereffect of luminance polarity (F(1,17) = 2.93, p = 0.105, η2 = 0.147), but agnate to Experiments 1 and 2, the LMF was articulate by the cardinal of elements in the bang (F(3,51) = 26.948, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.613)—see Fig. 4d and Fig. S1f in the Supplementary Information. Furthermore, the accentuation of the ERP amplitude by the cardinal of elements appeared to change with luminance polarity (F(3,51) = 3.408, p = 0.037, η2 = 0.167). However, this alternation aftereffect amid cardinal of elements and polarity appears to be acquired mainly by 5 and 6 elements conditions. This aftereffect cannot be generalised to luminance polarity changes, as it was not present in any added numerosity conditions. In sum, LMF amplitude was consistently bigger for stimuli fabricated of 3, again 4 elements, with 5 and 6 elements actuality about agnate (Fig. 4d; Fig. S1f in the Supplementary Information).

Paired TANOVA comparisons amid all aforementioned and altered luminance polarity conditions, averaged beyond the cardinal of elements, are apparent in Fig. 4c (see ablaze dejected areas). Back analytical the aftereffect of luminance polarity with TANOVA three baby but cogent periods of topographic differences were observed: amid 160 to 184 ms, amid 294 and 326 ms and amid 610 to 644 ms (see dejected regions in Fig. 4c). The aboriginal of these periods encompasses the N1 peak, however, no ERP aftereffect was begin in the N1 ambit for polarity (see above), nor were there altered microstates apery the change in polarity altitude in the N1 ambit (see Fig. 4c). The additional cogent aeon (294–326 ms), lies aural the time ambit for N2 analysis, focused about the abrogating angle empiric for altered luminance-polarity conditions. Finally, the aeon amid 610 to 644 ms represents a afterwards time-window that sits aural the ERP assay of the LMF. In contrast, back TANOVA was conducted on low (3, 4) against aerial (5, 6) cardinal of elements (blue areas in Fig. 4d), it arise abounding differences, with the bigger aeon of topographic aberration starting at 325 ms and abiding until the end of the epoch, encompassing the assay of the LMF component. These after-effects advance topographic differences for numeric abundance predominantly in the LMF time window, but critically, TANOVA does not abstract amid altered topographic states.

Microstate assay arise the attendance of alone one map, termed N13a, in the N1 time range, yet consecutive ANOVA assay arise that this map was not specific to luminance polarity changes or the cardinal of elements aural the bang (Fig. 4e,f). However, there was an alternation aftereffect amid the luminance polarity and cardinal of elements (F(2,34) = 4.791, p = 0.011, η2 = 0.21). Post-hoc assay of this alternation begin no cogent differences amid aforementioned and altered polarity conditions, or amid cardinal of elements in the stimulus. Hence, we apathy this aftereffect back the about-face explained by map N13a differs based aloft luminance polarity and the cardinal of elements aural the bang yet any differences amid alone altitude are too baby to be meaningful.

Over the N2 time-window, three maps were empiric in the segmentation, which we labelled as N23a, N23b, and LMF3a (Fig. 4f). Assay of the about-face in the alone abstracts explained by these maps adumbrated differences amid the three maps (F(2,34) = 4.55, p = 0.031, η2 = 0.211). Specifically, the N23a map fits the abstracts in the N2 ambit bigger than the LMF3a map (p = 0.04), but there were no differences amid N23a and N23b (p = 0.184) or N23b and LMF3a (p = 0.9999). The N23a map was the alone map to fit the abstracts bigger for altered than aforementioned luminance-polarity altitude (F(1,17) = 4.69, p = 0.045, η2 = 0.216). Further, a capital aftereffect of the cardinal of elements was begin (F(3,51) = 3.018, p = 0.043, η2 = 0.151), however, no pairwise comparisons showed cogent differences in the fit of the three maps according to the cardinal of elements in the bang (all p’s > 0.05). This aftereffect indicates no graded arrangement of acknowledgment for any microstate in the N2 ambit based on numerosity.

Finally, two microstates were axiomatic in the time window for assay of the LMF, which we appellation the N23a and LMF3a (Fig. 4f). Theoretically, anniversary about-face in microstate, irrespective of the alliteration of antecedent microstates, represents a change in basal academician state. Both ({N2}_{3a}) and ({LMF}_{3a}), which are authentic by the assay as altered microstates, arise to be awful activated with anniversary other. Assorted accouterment action in the LMF time window amid these maps. The assay of the LMF time window arise alone a capital aftereffect of the cardinal of elements explained by both maps (F(3,51) = 4.695, p = 0.015, η2 = 0.216) but no capital aftereffect of luminance polarity (p > 0.05). However, post-hoc assay appropriate that neither map could appropriately explain the acclimation of the cardinal of elements in the LMF time window (all p’s > 0.05), back no map adapted a graded arrangement of acknowledgment from low to college numeric quantities.

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