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In August 2018, the fifth anniversary Shaping Our Appalachian Arena Summit, a amusing casework and jobs fair, was captivated in Pikeville, Ky. Amid the booths set up by bounded universities and health-care companies was a table from Anomalous Appalachia, a berserk accepted Instagram account. Over its two-year history, Anomalous Appalachia had broadcast above its aboriginal agreeable about the lives and adeptness of anomalous bodies above Appalachia — antic memes about Dolly Parton and cornbread — and began accession money from its followers to abutment amusing initiatives in the region. A baby core of volunteers sat abaft the QA table at the summit, including Mamone, the account’s founder, and a advance declared Leo. (Mamone uses the mononymous Mamone. Leo batten on the action that abandoned his aboriginal name be used.)

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Leo grew up in Richmond, a boondocks with abysmal ties to the atramentous mining industry, and acquainted a able affiliation to Mamone’s platform. Afterwards Leo had volunteered for a few months, Mamone asked him to advice aggrandize Anomalous Appalachia into abuse abridgement work, a set of interventions advised to abate biologic overdoses and stigma associated with biologic use. “I started volunteering locally, acquirements as abundant as I could about it as humanly possible, and admiring every additional of it,” Leo says. He accomplished to administer naloxone, a biologic that rapidly reverses opioid overdoses, and to advise others those skills; soon, he was spending up to 60 hours a anniversary on QA’s abuse abridgement projects.

That summer, Leo, Mamone and accession advance catholic throughout the Appalachian region, distributing abuse abridgement abstracts at zine festivals and pride celebrations. The association acknowledgment was “outstanding,” Leo says. To accounts their travel, Leo acquaint a alarm on Instagram allurement supporters to buy QA stickers and accord to QA’s Venmo account. Leo says Mamone, who controlled the Venmo account, never told him how abundant money was aloft in those campaigns.

In September, Mamone acquaint a alarm on Instagram allurement Anomalous Appalachia’s followers for added donations, writing: “We’ve accustomed out ALL of our Abuse Abridgement aliment & allegation your $upport to buy added Narcan, all-overs & fentanyl analysis strips to duke out.” It was accompanied by a annual of about abandoned cabinets.

But Leo knew this wasn’t true. Their cabinets were abounding of donated supplies. “I anon beatific [Mamone] a bulletin actuality like: This is acutely unethical,” says Leo.

“I get the abandoned cupboards are not an accurate representation of area we are,” Mamone texted back. “It ain’t too far off admitting attractive at all-embracing budget. … I do not acquire the time or adeptness to accomplish custom cartoon for anniversary new column … that’s the actual attributes of fundraising like this.” (When I began advertisement this adventure in February 2019, I wrote an anterior email to Mamone with a few questions about the ambit and apparatus of Anomalous Appalachia. Afterwards acknowledging to that antecedent email, Mamone did not acknowledge to assorted abundant requests for comment, fabricated over the advance of a year.)

In 2019, a Roanoke-based nonprofit declared the Virginia Abuse Abridgement Affiliation approached Anomalous Appalachia about partnering to administer for a admission from HepConnect, the acceding arm of Gilead Sciences. The two apparel teamed up and won the admission of $300,000. Leo alive off on the application, but already the money was awarded, he bound became balked with how the funds were distributed.

He absitively to stop alive with Anomalous Appalachia and appointed a affair with Mamone to abdicate in person. Mamone accumulating up to the affair in a new truck, complete with “every alarm and whistle,” says Leo. “There was no accuracy on area the money to buy this aboriginal barter came from,” he told me. “I aloof anticipation it was such a ‘f— you’ to all of the people, the poor and banal bodies who had accustomed their money [to Anomalous Appalachia] afterwards absolutely compassionate or alive area it was going.”

There is a lot of joy in the account, and arresting beauty, and a faculty of belligerent survival. There is bucking and anger, fat bodies and the admired breakfast alternation Tudor’s Biscuit World.

If you’re from Appalachia or the South and alive in lefty communities, you’re apparently accustomed with Anomalous Appalachia. If you alive in New York or Los Angeles, it may be the abandoned Appalachian-based media you know. A column from June 2017, about a year afterwards its launch, declared QA as an aggregator for “field notes, poems, prose, essays, playlists, reviews, photography, crosswords…and annihilation abroad as continued as it has to do with Anomalous Appalachia/Queer South.” As the annual best up followers — 276,000 and counting — it accustomed advantage from NBC News, Slate and USA Today, amid abounding others.

The absorption may acquire to do with the absence of Appalachian representation in accepted culture. In contempo years, “Hillbilly Elegy,” a annual by adventure backer J.D. Vance, characterized the Appalachian adeptness as one acutely “in crisis.” The accepted TV appearance “Justified” depicted Appalachian eastern Kentucky as a abode of annihilation and meth. It has consistently been this way: From the stereotypes broadcast in local-color novels afterwards the Civil War to the comedy of “The Beverly Hillbillies” in the 1960s and “The Dukes of Hazzard” in the 1980s, Appalachia has apparent its accustomed assets extracted and its belief disregarded, a history that has larboard assembly craving for positive, or at atomic nuanced, representations of themselves. Excellent contempo works like historian Elizabeth Catte’s book “What You Are Getting Wrong About Appalachia” accustomed bounded and analytical acclamation but bootless to allure a civic boilerplate audience. I became acquainted of this history of stereotyping aback I took a job in southern West Virginia in 2009; I’ve aback alternate abounding times and acquire accounting a book set there.

Representations of Appalachian aberration are abnormally rare. West Virginia has the accomplished bulk of auto adolescence per capita of any American state, according to a 2017 abstraction by the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law, but advocates for anomalous bodies in Appalachia acquire struggled to activate civic absorption or resources. “Queers aren’t declared to survive in the mountains in a arena that’s not declared to survive in the mural of our culture,” says Caleb Pendygraft, a bookish based in Massachusetts who studies anomalous Appalachian accent and representation. “Our adaptation approach acquire consistently been creative, and they are generally visual.”

That’s accession acumen for Anomalous Appalachia’s success. There is a lot of joy in the account, and arresting beauty, and a faculty of belligerent survival. There is bucking and anger, fat bodies and the admired breakfast alternation Tudor’s Biscuit World. There are the Appalachian Mountains in the background, blooming and old and gorgeous; actuality in the alpha is a coquette man with a rattail assuming adjoin a auto truck. There is a faculty of abnegation to apologize in the account’s messaging, of actuality absolutely who you are, as abominable or crass as that adeptness assume to others. “QA is radical,” says Pendygraft. “A lot of fundraisers, a lot of nonprofits [in Appalachia] absolutely shy abroad from application the words ‘queer’ and ‘racist’ and ‘sex worker’ because they’re aggravating to be inclusive, to not affront anyone. But QA does.” Posts are generally abounding with continued strings of comments from anomalous Appalachians adage they assuredly feel seen.

Amid all the achievement and beauty, however, is accession ancillary of Anomalous Appalachia. Almost from the beginning, the annual affianced in banking activism to annual important amusing issues — catastrophe white supremacy and active transphobia, for archetype — by allurement for donations from its followers. The activity acutely aspired not aloof to annual the adventures of anomalous bodies in Appalachia, but to fix abounding of the problems it was identifying. Fixes that appropriate money.

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In November 2016, six months afterwards it launched, amid posts about bootleg slingshots and board spoons, Anomalous Appalachia solicited donations to annual a accretion accomplishment for wildfires that had aloof devastated Gatlinburg, Tenn. It directed followers to accord to QA through PayPal, able that “100% of your donation will go to buy supplies.” The annual didn’t amend its followers on how abundant was aloft or area the money was sent.

Queer Appalachia went on to accession money in this manner, confined as the abettor for contributions against the amusing acceptable of Appalachia, and for bodies who requested abetment via an email anatomy on QA’s website. These fundraising calls were generally accompanied by images of the emails, forth with QA’s PayPal and Venmo information. From “I’m QTIPOC [queer, trans, intersex actuality of color] positive, active in my car” to “I’m not able to admission my bounded rural aliment abetment options with dignity, I’ve chock-full alike aggravating because it so hard,” anniversary email was added affecting than the next. QA’s Venmo history — which was accessible for a time but has been afflicted to clandestine — reflected donations from about the country, generally baby amounts from $5 to $30, alongside letters of support. It was not accessible on Venmo to chase these donations afterwards they were made.

The account’s fundraising efforts broadcast in November 2018, aback QA launched a covering drive, allurement followers to accelerate donations or mail acclamation acclimated coats to Mamone in Bluefield, W.Va. The Instagram column for the drive aloft over $5,000, and the covering appeal annual was 8,000 bodies long, Mamone told Burnaway, an online annual about art in the South. That November alone, QA said it beatific out or bought 450 coats for anomalous bodies in need. “WE’RE NOT GOING TO STOP UNTIL EVERYONE THAT WROTE IN ASKING FOR A COAT GETS ONE…#nooneisdisposable,” apprehend the post.

Three sources abutting to Mamone, all of whom batten on the action of anonymity for abhorrence of amusing and able backlash, told me that the covering drive prompted them to agnosticism Anomalous Appalachia’s claims on Instagram. The calibration of the project, and the acumen circuitous to donate, apple-pie and address that cardinal of coats, seemed suspect. Leo had started volunteering for Anomalous Appalachia by this time and says that he saw mailed-in coats in Mamone’s garage; pictures acquaint to Anomalous Appalachia’s Patreon page, accession online fundraising platform, arise to affirm this. Leo already saw Mamone loading coats into a car, he told me, but isn’t abiding what happened afterwards that. I begin bodies on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter who had donated coats, and who abundantly accepted QA’s accumulating efforts; application the aforementioned means, I could not acquisition anyone who had accustomed a coat, or anyone who had benefited from the alone fundraising calls.

Further, Mamone’s use of character labels during the drive additionally abandoned some above supporters. “Everything is consistently so acute and it’s so tokenizing,” says Kayleigh Phillips, a boom artisan who formed carefully on a QA activity with Mamone and has aback cut ties. “It’s consistently [for] a auto actuality of color. That’s who they pump every time [Mamone is] aggravating to get money.”

“I bethink adage commodity forth the curve of, ‘Why don’t you aloof accelerate the money beeline to the people,’ aback they were accomplishing the covering drive,” says Shane Hicks, an Asheville, N.C.-based Black auto man and Instagram activist. (Mamone identifies as non-binary.) Hicks commonly larboard comments on QA posts criticizing agreeable that he saw as anti-Black or excluding of bodies of color. But his analytical comments were bound deleted, he says.

As for Mamone’s own finances, they told accompany and acquaint on Facebook that they fabricated a acceptable active as an audio engineer, bearing alive shows for the Coachella and South by Southwest festivals via SiriusXM. A adumbrative for SiriusXM told me that the aggregation has no almanac of a Gina Mamone — the name Mamone ahead acclimated — as a accepted or above employee, although this doesn’t avert the achievability that Mamone formed as an absolute contractor.

Queer Appalachia is not a registered nonprofit organization, nor are best of its declared accommodating recipients. Operating this way is an advised political statement, QA says on its site, area it positions itself as an accession to the “nonprofit automated complex.” This is allotment of what could accomplish QA innovative: The adroitness can be freeing, and actual of the moment. Traditional fundraising can be out of blow with, or alike absolute adverse to, the needs of marginalized communities. Some aid programs bind what recipients can buy on their dollar, and some abandoned shelters do not acquire those afterwards state-issued identification, say, or bodies who were ahead incarcerated.

But this additionally makes banking accountability acutely difficult. It’s absurd to apperceive if the money QA aloft during these calls — and continues to accession through its annual today — acreage in the coffer annual of its advised recipient. Donors assurance that QA will alteration their donations to those in need. PayPal and Venmo donations can’t be traced afterwards accord from the annual owner, Mamone, admitting any aborigine can appeal admission to a nonprofit’s records. Sometime in 2019, QA partially afflicted its archetypal and now sometimes links anon to the PayPal or Venmo of the actuality it is gluttonous to help, although I was not able to acquisition anyone who benefited from this model; further, it would be absurd to anticipate if donations originated from QA followers or the recipient’s claimed channels.

“Nonprofit organizations accomplish beneath the all-important acceptance that not all of the funds calm will be put anon appear the mission they are serving,” Kevin Scally, arch accord administrator for Charity Navigator, a civic nonprofit that assesses and evaluates accommodating organizations, wrote in an email. “By necessity, there are costs associated with accustomed out the mission of an alignment that precludes that possibility. Aback an alone fundraises for an alignment on an online platform, on the added hand, it is accepted that all of the money calm will again be transferred to the defined nonprofit in the abounding bulk (barring belvedere fees).”

Almost from the beginning, Anomalous Appalachia affianced in financial activism to benefit important amusing issues — catastrophe white supremacy and active transphobia, for archetype — by allurement for donations from its followers.

Along with alone fundraising requests, in January 2017 Mamone started a GoFundMe attack to actualize an Appalachian-themed zine declared Electric Dirt, with donated agreeable from 22 contributors, including admired Instagram astrologer Chani Nicholas and acclaimed West Virginia biographer Mesha Maren. But the photograph on the cover, which featured a Black gender-nonconforming person, was acclimated afterwards permission or licensing from the photographer, the anomalous New Orleans artisan Cameron Bordelon. Aback Bordelon contacted Mamone about the use of the photo, Mamone apologized and offered a “social media spotlight” or a chargeless ad in the zine’s abutting volume, says Bordelon, who beneath the offer.

The attack concluded up adopting $30,306, according to its GoFundMe page, and again “fulfilled accession $20,000 in absolute sales afterwards the book’s absolution in late-December 2017,” wrote Elizabeth Catte in Belt Magazine. (Catte told me she accustomed this bulk from Mamone.) But to an admirers at the 2018 American Folklore Society appointment in Buffalo, Mamone appear that Electric Dirt aloft $100,000. According to the Phoenix-based columnist aggregation acclimated for the zine, the adjustment was for 1,200 copies of the 200-page blush publication, which bulk about $7,000. Hollis Brooks, again Mamone’s cogent other, says the copies were alien application Stamps.com. Based on accepted bazaar rates, a bourgeois appraisal for that bulk is about $3,300; we can’t apperceive for abiding what added costs accrued, if any.

Mamone appear on Instagram that the gain from the zine, above assembly and aircraft costs, would be broadcast to the Appalachian association via a microgrant program. Grants would ambit from $250 to $2,000, and Mamone encouraged applications from anyone: “You do not acquire to acquire nonprofit / 501c3 status,” they wrote. “This is an advised redistribution of resources, POC / Indigenous projects are acerb encouraged to apply.”

Fourteen admission recipients were listed on Anomalous Appalachia’s website until backward 2019, aback the microgrant affairs abolished from the site. Out of the 14 listed recipients, one appear accepting $250; one appear accepting $1,000 instead of a promised $3,000; one had no almanac of accepting money from QA; and one said QA “amplified” their efforts but gave no banking contribution. Two accustomed donations they had not activated for, accretion grants of $6,000 and $100. (Five either did not acknowledgment requests for animadversion or beneath to comment. Three could not be begin for contact.) Three others not listed on the website accepted to me that QA donated $250 to each.

In total, I accepted that Anomalous Appalachia gave $8,100 to Appalachian bodies and organizations through its microgrant program. Because of the abridgement of accuracy and the altered abstracts Mamone appear to columnist and supporters, it is absurd to apperceive absolutely how abundant QA aloft vs. what was distributed.

In our February 2019 email exchange, I asked Mamone about the QA model. “I don’t apperceive if we acquire a archetypal added again aggravating to get things on the to do annual done every day to the best of our ability,” they wrote. “I’m not an employee, we’re not in a 501(c)(3) etc, it’s a association zine activity … It’s a collective, we vote.” In a November 2016 post, Mamone characterized QA as “a scattering of Appalachian queers” who “share albatross equally.” But the armpit doesn’t annual any added associates of the collective. In a 2018 Bitch Annual article, columnist Kristina Gaddy declared QA as a aggregate of 15 people, a cardinal that Gaddy attributes to Mamone.

I batten to nine bodies who donated actual for the Electric Dirt zine, bristles journalists who acquire covered Anomalous Appalachia, and nine assembly of baby nonprofits who accustomed or were declared to accept money from QA. They all said they’d never appear with anyone at QA except Mamone.

In accession to Mamone’s above accomplice Hollis Brooks, and conflicting above colleagues Kayleigh Phillips and Leo, all of whom formed carefully with Mamone, I batten to Appalachian bookish and activist Zane McNeill, who agreed to advice Mamone adapt Aggregate 2 of the Electric Dirt zine, and Hicks, who helped Mamone acquisition Black auto bodies in the South announcement calls for banking help. All bristles said that — while they volunteered their time on altered QA projects — Mamone was the abandoned actuality they were acquainted of who posts and moderates its amusing media, makes decisions about programs and initiatives, and has ability over the QA money.

This is not the aboriginal time Mamone has fabricated ambiguous claims about their work. Afterwards growing up in and accessory academy in West Virginia, they confused to D.C. and formed at a now-defunct alignment for adults with bookish disabilities; Mamone eventually filed for defalcation in the city. They relocated to New York and founded Riot Grrrl Ink, which claimed, on its now-defunct website, to be “the better anomalous almanac characterization in the world.” Riot Grrrl Ink was not registered as a nonprofit on IRS.gov or as an congenital business in any state. On the all-encompassing online music database Discogs, Gina Mamone is accustomed a “concept” acclamation on Nervous But Excited’s 2009 anthology “Anchors,” but RGI is not accustomed as bearing any albums or songs.

Traditional fundraising can be out of blow with, or alike absolute adverse to, the needs of marginalized communities.

Riot Grrrl Ink’s armpit fabricated some adventurous claims: that RGI or Mamone (they seemed to be acclimated interchangeably) had been nominated for a Grammy Accolade and that they’d won the “Lannan Foundation trailblazing accolade for greening of the music industry.” The Lannan Foundation says that “Lannan has no such accolade and no ability of Gina Mamone or Riot Grrrl Ink,” and neither RGI nor Mamone are listed in the online Grammy archive, although it is not accessible to appearance aboriginal circuit of Grammy nominees.

RGI declared to acquire “over 200 artists on our Produce & Abutment roster,” including Indigo Girls and Amy Ray, Sleater-Kinney and Pamela Means. Abounding of these artists altercation this: A columnist rep for Sleater-Kinney replied that their admirers acquire never heard of Gina Mamone, while Amy Ray of the Indigo Girls said through her abettor that Mamone “has helped me out with my abandoned assignment in the accomplished but not in a paid capacity.” Bureau told me by email that Mamone “donated $1000 once,” but added that they “never managed, produced, wrote, or consulted on ANY of my work.”

In the winter of 2014, RGI declared on Facebook that it was “closing for the rEvolution.” In an act of ancestral adherence aggressive by the killing of Michael Brown by a badge administrator in Ferguson, Mo., RGI said it planned to alteration all of its assets and contacts to AwQward Talent, an bureau alone for auto and anomalous assuming artists of blush founded and run by J Mase III. During a buzz alarm with Mamone, Mase says, Mamone promised the bureau about $100,000 in resources. But money never arrived. It was a adverse blow: “I capital to accept that there were bodies out there who absolutely believed in solidarity,” Mase says.

Taylor Black was a New York associate of Mamone’s who had appear to agnosticism abounding of Mamone’s claims about RGI. The two fell out of blow aback Mamone larboard New York to move aback to West Virginia, but Black kept up with Mamone online, watching as they launched Anomalous Appalachia. “I assumption they assuredly ample out a new business arrangement afterwards Riot Grrrl Ink closed,” Black told me. “I ample the aforementioned old actuality adeptness be activity on. But with Anomalous Appalachia, the issues are absolutely important.”

Since Anomalous Appalachia is not registered as a nonprofit, it has to be sponsored by an alignment with 501(c)(3) cachet to administer for grants. The Virginia Abuse Abridgement Coalition, which partnered with QA to win the $300,000 admission from HepConnect in October 2019, is a registered nonprofit. According to Leo, affiliation co-founder Lawson Koeppel wrote the grant, which was again alive by Leo and Mamone. “I basically aloof alive my name at the bottom, and I didn’t absolutely attending at it abundant added than that, which is acutely naive,” Leo told me.

How could an alignment that’s not a nonprofit be allotment of a acknowledged bid for a $300,000 grant? A Gilead Sciences agent told me that the aggregation grants to the civic Abuse Abridgement Coalition, which again regrants the money through the HepConnect program. A agent for the civic group, Daniel Raymond, told me that the admission was for the Virginia Abuse Abridgement Affiliation (unaffiliated with the civic group) — not Anomalous Appalachia. But until recently, the Abuse Abridgement Affiliation listed Anomalous Appalachia as a admission almsman on its website. Aback I asked Raymond why, he beneath to comment.

When they appear the $300,000 grant, Mamone wrote on the QA Patreon folio in December 2019, “we had no abstraction all of the expectations and responsibilities that would appear forth with accepting such a grant. It was & is the actual analogue of our aboriginal rodeo. This admission is a bold banker not aloof for us but the accompaniment of West Virginia. Abundant of the accessible abuse abridgement done actuality is what we would alarm performative…It’s advised to accomplish white bodies with avant-garde degrees feel like things are actuality done in their community.”

Expecting a abundant arrival of banknote from the grant, Leo created a annual to appoint Appalachian anomalous bodies of color, as the angle promised. But Mamone, who was alone in allegation of the armamentarium allocation, chock-full him, says Leo. According to Leo, Mamone capital to action a salaried position advantageous about $110,000 to Koeppel, a White man. (Koeppel did not acknowledgment requests for comment.) Leo became frustrated: As abundant as QA declared to accent the choir of bodies of color, there were aught bodies of blush circuitous in its controlling — or any native-born Appalachians, for that matter, except Mamone.

That’s aback Leo absitively to quit. Mamone “is not accomplishing this abolitionist work,” he says. “What they absolutely are accomplishing is aloof authoritative assets from affairs their merchandise,” application “harm abridgement memes and concepts to aloof ultimately accession money through allotment merch.”

Queer Appalachia has become a new affectionate of gatekeeper: the articulation amid this important, accessible association and boilerplate American media.

The allegation that Anomalous Appalachia identifies is real: Anomalous and auto bodies active in the arena acquire some of the country’s accomplished ante of addiction, suicide and bloom problems. And some of what QA provides — affecting support, character validation, association assurance — is important. But there are accepted questions about the rest.

“So generally there is a aboideau keeper, an archivist, sociologist, anthropologist, folklorist or historian that curates, and decides who & what is documented,” Mamone acquaint on Instagram in January 2017. “Someone with admission to college apprenticeship and resources, that most, abnormally in our bankrupt arena do not have. That does not appear here.” But Anomalous Appalachia has become a new affectionate of gatekeeper: the articulation amid this important, accessible association and boilerplate American media. Journalists, conceivably acquisitive to abutment what they apperceive as a aces cause, acquire accounting belief congenital abandoned on interviews with Mamone.

The address Mamone and Anomalous Appalachia use accomplish them somewhat criticism-proof. “They acquire a lot of clout, and anybody is so abashed of backlash, actuality accused of not actuality supportive,” says Kayleigh Phillips. “I did feel a akin of benevolence [for Mamone],” she says of their time alive carefully together. “But … they’re bloodthirsty on the bodies that they’re declared to be helping.”

“They presented themselves as a advocate and an anarchist,” says Leo. “But at the end of the day, it’s capitalism. And it’s been corruption of all these bodies who absolutely accept [in] and maybe acquire projected what they’ve capital assimilate this project.”

Meanwhile, Anomalous Appalachia goes on. According to its Instagram account, the activity is attractive to appoint anomalous bodies of blush as promised in the $300,000 admission and is soliciting applications for $250 microgrants for Black rural artists. QA additionally continues affairs commodity — an developed onesie emblazoned with an angel of Dolly Parton will run you about $125, while a “Capitalism Is the Virus” shirt is $35 — and has launched a fundraising attack able to “forgive Appalachian medical debt” in the bulk of every dollar donated. According to the QA Patreon and website, Electric Dirt Aggregate 2, priced at $35, was due out in August 2019, again October 2019, admitting QA’s website now promises it in “late summer 2020.” It has not been published.

Correction: An beforehand adaptation of this adventure included Elaine McMillion Sheldon’s documentary “Heroin(e)” as an archetype of a assignment that accustomed acclamation but bootless to allure a civic boilerplate audience. The documentary was broadcast by Netflix and won an Emmy in 2018 for outstanding abbreviate documentary.

Correction: An beforehand adaptation afield articular New Orleans artisan Cameron Bordelon as Black.

Update: This adventure has been adapted to reflect the actual name of Appalachian bookish and activist Zane McNeill.

Emma Copley Eisenberg is a biographer based in Philadelphia and the columnist of “The Third Rainbow Girl: The Continued Life of a Double Annihilation in Appalachia.”

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