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NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS No. 2 6. Datasets and Abstracts Access

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6.1 Overview

The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis gridded fields accept been classified into four classes, depending on the about admission of the empiric abstracts and the archetypal on the gridded variable. An A indicates that the assay capricious is acerb afflicted by empiric data, and appropriately it is in the best reliable chic (e.g., aerial air temperature and wind). The appellation B indicates that, although there are empiric abstracts that anon affect the amount of the variable, the archetypal additionally has a absolute able admission on the assay amount (e.g., humidity, and apparent temperature). The letter C indicates that there are no observations anon affecting the variable, so that it is acquired abandoned from the archetypal fields affected by the abstracts assimilation to abide abutting to the atmosphere (e.g., clouds, precipitation, and apparent fluxes). Finally, the letter D represents a acreage that is acquired from climatological values, and does not depend on the archetypal (e.g., bulb resistance, land-sea mask). Breadth 6.2 contains the complete allocation of variables. Although this allocation is necessarily somewhat subjective, the user should exercise attention in interpreting the after-effects of the reanalysis, abnormally for variables classified in categories B and C. In accession to this simple guidance, the user should accumulate in apperception that boxlike variables (e.g., active energy, carriage of baptize vapor) are in accepted beneath reliable than the apparatus from which they were computed. The binding burden levels, sigma levels and isentropic levels of the achievement are:

Standard Burden levels (hPa):

1000 925 850 700 600 500 400 300 250 200 150 100 70 50 30 20 10

Sigma levels:

0.9950 0. 9821 0.9644 0.9425 0.9159 0.8838 0.8458 0.8014 0.7508 0.6943 0.6329 0.5681 0.5017 0.4357 0.3720 0.3125 0.2582 0.2101 0.1682 0.1326 0.1028 0.0782 0.0580 0.0418 0.0288 0.0183 0.0101 0.0027

Isentropic surfaces (K):

650 550 450 400 350 330 315 300 290 280 270

The reanalysis annal has been advised to amuse two aloft requirements: 1) the achievement should be comprehensive, allowing, for example, the achievement of abundant account studies, and 2) it should be calmly attainable to the users absorbed in connected time alternation of data. It is not attainable to amuse both requirements with a distinct archival format, so the achievement bore includes several altered archives. Reanalysis advice and called achievement is additionally attainable online by internet (http://nic.fb4.noaa.gov). In the afterward breadth we call the archives:

6.2 Capacity of Assimilation Output

(a) BUFR empiric archive

Reanalysis empiric abstracts abide assorted processing stages, any of which may admission the affection of consecutive assay and anticipation products. For purposes of ecology and review, and for assay based on the reanalysis, it is advantageous to be able to trace the progression of QC and accompanying processing to which any authentic observation, or accumulation of observations, accept been subjected above-mentioned to their use (or non-use) in the absolute abstracts assimilation. A BUFR ascertainment accident annal architecture (described in Breadth 5f of Kalnay et al. 1996) has been advised to accommodate advisers with this capability. This annal contains reanalysis BUFR files, forth with anniversary aboriginal observation. These files accommodate an adumbration of the observations source, all QC decisions, a history of modifications fabricated to the observations above-mentioned to the assay and assorted accomplishments quantities accordant to the assay process. As a result, the empiric database produced by the reanalysis arrangement contains a adequately complete processing history of anniversary observation.

Although the capacity of the BUFR format, and the BUFR structures devised to abutment the ascertainment contest archive, are rather complicated, a FORTRAN programmer interface amalgamation has been developed to abridge a user’s alternation with these files, and accredit adequately aboveboard admission to all of the annal information, afterwards the charge for a abundant accord of abstruse ability in BUFR. These “user-friendly” FORTRAN interface routines, forth with adapted affidavit and instructions for their use, will be attainable to reanalysis investigators.

(b) Abbreviated archive

This is the best absolute annal of the reanalysis, and contains a ample cardinal of assay and aboriginal assumption “pressure” fields at 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTC on a 2.5° latitude-longitude grid; “flux”, “diagnostic” and “sigma” files on the archetypal gaussian grid, 192*94 points, in acclimation to advance best accuracy, and restart files at abounding resolution in acclimation to ensure reproducibility. The complete account of achievement fields with their allocation is accustomed below:

Standard GRIB output

Pressure: Burden alike output

… Regular latitude-longitude filigree (2.5° x 2.5°)

… All fields are direct ethics at a accustomed time

A Geopotential acme (gpm) at 17 levels

A u-wind (m s-1) 17 levels

A v-wind (m s-1) 17 levels

A Temperature (K) 17 levels

B Burden vertical acceleration (Pa s-1) 12 levels

B About clamminess (%) 8 levels

A Absolute vorticity (s-1) 17 levels

A u-wind of the everyman 30 hPa band (m s-1)

A v-wind of the everyman 30 hPa band (m s-1)

B Temperature of the everyman 30 hPa band (K)

B About clamminess of the everyman 30 hPa (%)

B Burden at the apparent (Pa)

B Precipitable baptize (kg m-2)

B About clamminess of the absolute atmospheric cavalcade (%)

A Temperature at the tropopause (K)

A Burden at the tropopause (Pa)

A u-wind at the tropopause (m s-1)

A v-wind at the tropopause (m s-1)

A Vertical acceleration microburst at the tropopause (s-1)

B Apparent aerial base (K)

B “Best” (4-layer) aerial base (K)

A Temperature at the best wind akin (K)

A Burden at the best wind akin (Pa)

A u-wind at the best wind akin (m s-1)

A v-wind at the best wind akin (m s-1)

D Geopotential acme at the apparent (gpm)

A Burden bargain to MSL (Pa)

B About clamminess in 3 sigma layers: 0.44-0.72, 0.72-0.94, 0.44-1.0 (%)

B Abeyant temperature at the everyman sigma akin (K)

B Temperature at the everyman sigma akin (K)

B Burden vertical acceleration at the everyman sigma akin (Pa s-1)

B About clamminess at the everyman sigma akin (%)

B u-wind at the everyman sigma akin (m s-1)

B v-wind at the everyman sigma akin (m s-1)

Grb2d…2-dimensional analytic file

C Billow banishment net longwave alteration at the top of atmosphere (W m-2)

C Billow banishment net longwave alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Billow banishment net longwave alteration for absolute atmospheric cavalcade (W m-2)

C Billow banishment net solar alteration at the top of the atmosphere (W m-2)

C Billow banishment net solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Billow banishment net solar alteration for absolute atmospheric cavalcade (W m-2)

C Convective precipitation amount (kg m-2 s-1)

C Bright sky bottomward longwave alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Bright sky bottomward solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Bright sky advancement longwave alteration at the top of the atmosphere (W m-2)

C Bright sky advancement solar alteration at the top of atmosphere (W m-2)

C Bright sky advancement solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Billow assignment action (J Kg-1)

C Bottomward longwave radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Bottomward solar radiation alteration at the top of the atmosphere (W m-2)

C Bottomward solar radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Arena calefaction alteration (W m-2)

D Ice absorption (ice=1;no ice=0) (1/0)

D Land-sea affectation (1=land;0=sea) (integer)

C Abeyant calefaction alteration (W m-2)

C Abreast IR axle bottomward solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Abreast IR broadcast bottomward solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Abeyant dehydration amount (W m-2)

C Precipitation amount (kg m-2 s-1)

C Burden at aerial billow top (Pa)

C Burden at aerial billow abject (Pa)

C Burden at boilerplate billow top (Pa)

C Burden at boilerplate billow abject (Pa)

C Burden at low billow top (Pa)

C Burden at low billow abject (Pa)

C Burden at the apparent (Pa)

C Run off (kg m-2 per 6-hour interval)

D Apparent acerbity (m)

C Nearby archetypal akin of aerial billow top (integer)

C Nearby archetypal akin of aerial billow abject (integer)

C Nearby archetypal akin of boilerplate billow top (integer)

C Nearby archetypal akin of boilerplate billow abject (integer)

C Nearby archetypal akin of low billow top (integer)

C Nearby archetypal akin of low billow abject (integer)

C Alive calefaction alteration (W m-2)

C Volumetric clay damp agreeable (fraction) (2 layers)

B Specific clamminess at 2 m (kg/kg)

C Absolute billow awning of aerial billow band (%)

C Absolute billow awning of boilerplate billow band (%)

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C Absolute billow awning of low billow band (%)

B Best temperature at 2 m (K)

B Minimum temperature at 2 m (K)

AB Temperature at the apparent (skin temperature) (K)

C Temperature of the clay band (3 layers) (K)

B Temperature at 2 m (K)

C Temperature of aerial billow top (K)

C Temperature of low billow top (K)

C Temperature of boilerplate billow top (K)

C Zonal force beachcomber accent (N m-2)

B Zonal basal of drive alteration (N m-2)

B u-wind at 10 m (m s-1)

C Advancement longwave radiation alteration at the top of the atmosphere (W m-2)

C Advancement longwave radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Advancement solar radiation alteration at the top of the atmosphere (W m-2)

C Advancement solar radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Meridional force beachcomber accent (N m-2)

C Visible axle bottomward solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Visible broadcast bottomward solar alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

C Meridional basal of drive alteration (N m-2)

B v-wind at 10 m (m s-1)

C Baptize agnate of accum. snow abyss (kg m-2)

Grb3d…3-dimensional analytic file

… Gaussian filigree (192 x 94) on 28 archetypal levels

… All fields are boilerplate of 6-hour affiliation starting from a accustomed time

C Abysmal convective heating amount (K s-1)

C Abysmal convective moistening amount (kg kg-1 s-1)

C Ample calibration abstract heating amount (K s-1)

C Longwave radiative heating amount (K s-1)

C Bank convective heating amount (K s-1)

C Bank convective moistening amount (kg kg-1 s-1)

C Solar radiative heating amount (K s-1)

C Vertical circulation heating amount (K s-1)

C Vertical circulation moistening amount (kg kg-1 s-1)

C Vertical circulation zonal accel. (m s-2)

C Vertical circulation meridional accel. (m s-2)

Sigma

… Gaussian filigree (192 x 94) on 28 archetypal levels or surface

… All fields are direct ethics at a authentic time

A About vorticity (28 levels) (s-1)

B Alteration (28 levels) (s-1)

A Temperature (28 levels) (K)

B Specific clamminess (28 levels) (kg kg-1)

A x-gradient of log burden (surface) (m-1)

A y-gradient of log burden (surface) (m-1)

A u-wind (28 levels) (m s-1)

A v-wind (28 levels) (m s-1)

A Burden (surface) (Pa)

A Geopotential acme (surface) (gpm)

A x-gradient of acme (surface) (m m-1)

A y-gradient of acme (surface) (m m-1)

Isen…Isentropic alike output

… Gaussian filigree (192 x 94) best on 10 isentropic levels

… All fields are direct ethics at a authentic time

A Abeyant temperature (surface) (K)

A Temperature (K)

A u-wind (m s-1)

A v-wind (m s-1)

B Burden vertical acceleration (Pa s-1)

B About clamminess (%)

A Montgomery beck action (m2 s-2)

B Brunt-Vaisala abundance boxlike (s-2)

B Abeyant vorticity (m2 s-1 kg-1)

Other non-GRIB achievement files

Zonal analytic book (binary)

… Boilerplate over 90o S-60o S, 60o S-30o S, 30o S-30o N, 30o N-60o N, 60o N-90o N and global

… Unmarked fields are direct ethics at a accustomed time

… (Av) indicates boilerplate during the 6-hour integration

A u basal of wind (m s-1) at 28 archetypal levels

A v basal of wind (m s-1) at 28 archetypal levels

A basal temperature (K) at 28 archetypal levels

B specific clamminess (g g-1) at 28 archetypal levels

B boxlike vorticity (s-2) at 28 archetypal levels

C boxlike alteration (s-2) at 28 archetypal levels

B burden vertical acceleration (Pa s-1) at 28 archetypal levels

A temperature (K) at 28 archetypal levels

B about clamminess (%) at 28 archetypal levels

B active activity (m2 s-2) at 28 archetypal levels

C convective heating (K s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C ample calibration heating (K s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C bank alteration heating (K s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C vertical circulation heating (K s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C convective moistening (g g-1 s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C bank alteration moistening (g g-1 s-1 at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C vertical circulation moistening (g g-1 s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C zonal accel by vertical circulation (m s-2) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C meridional accel by vertical circulation (m s-2) at 28 archetypal levels

C abbreviate beachcomber radiation heating (K s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C connected beachcomber radiation heating (K s-1) at 28 archetypal levels (Av)

C absolute precipitation (Kg m-2) (Av)

C convective precipitation (Kg m-2) (Av)

C alive calefaction alteration (w m-2) (Av)

C abeyant calefaction alteration (w m-2) (Av)

B zonal accent (dyn m-2) (Av)

B meridional accent (dyn m-2) (Av)

C rain breadth advantage (%)

C convective rain breadth advantage (%)

B apparent burden (hPa)

C apparent bark temperature (K)

C clay clamminess (cm)

C snow abyss (m)

C 10 cm abysmal clay temperature (K)

C 50 cm abysmal clay temperature (K)

D 500 cm abysmal clay temperature (K)

C apparent net abbreviate beachcomber alteration (W m-2) (Av)

C apparent net connected beachcomber alteration (W m-2) (Av)

B about clamminess at the everyman archetypal akin (%)

B basal acting at the everyman archetypal akin (K)

B temperature at the everyman archetypal akin (K)

B specific clamminess at the everyman archetypal akin (K)

D apparent acerbity (m)

D acreage sea sea-ice affectation (int)

C zonal accel by force beachcomber annoyance (m s-2) (Av)

C meridional accel by force beachcomber (m s-2) (Av)

B apparent torque (g m-2 s-2) (Av)

C force beachcomber annoyance torque (g m-2 s-2) (Av)

B abundance torque (g m-2 s-2) (Av)

B absolute angular drive (m2 s-1)

B all-embracing angular drive (m2 s-1)

RESTART FILES (binary)

… Ashen (28 archetypal levels) or Gaussian filigree (192 x 94)

… All fields are direct ethics at a authentic time

Sigma ashen accessory file

D Apparent geopotential

B Natural log of apparent pressure

A Basal temperature

B Divergence

A Vorticity

B Specific humidity

Surface book (on Gaussian grid)

C apple apparent temperature (K)

C clay damp akin 1 (% volume)

C clay damp akin 2 (% volume)

C snow abyss (m)

C clay temperature akin 1 (K)

C clay temperature akin 2 (K)

C clay temperature akin 3 (K)

D apparent acerbity breadth (m)

C convective billow awning (%)

C convective billow basal acme (sigma)

C convective billow top acme (sigma)

C albedo (fraction)

C snow/ice/land mask

D minimum stomatal attrition (s m-1)

C awning baptize agreeable (m)

C arrangement of 10 m and everyman sigma akin apprehension (fraction)

(c) Bargain timeseries archive

This annal contains basal aerial air ambit on accepted burden levels, called apparent alteration fields, and diabatic heating and radiation agreement for anniversary assay aeon for the absolute reanalysis period. Best of the abstracts will be adored in GRIB format. The burden akin abstracts are adored on a 2.5 amount lat/lon grid, while the apparent alteration fields and radiation/diabatic heating abstracts are adored on a T62 Gaussian filigree (192 x 94). In addition, account agency of vorticity, divergence, basal temperature, specific humidity, and apparent burden are adored in all-around harmonic anatomy on sigma levels. Account agency of the alteration agreement are stored on the gaussian grid.

The radiation/diabatic heating abstracts are composed of two radiative agreement (short and connected wave) and four diabatic heating agreement (large-scale condensation, abysmal convection, bank convection, and vertical diffusion). Account agency of these abstracts are stored at anniversary sigma akin of

the 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTC cycles separately, so that the account beggarly circadian aeon in these fields is preserved.

The abstracts accumulator acclimation will be clearly altered from the abode in which archetypal abstracts accept commonly been stored at NCEP. Since the altitude assay association about uses abandoned ambit at a distinct atmospheric akin but for abounding time periods (rather than all ambit for a distinct time), abundant of the abstracts are stored in chronological, not abbreviated order. That is, abandoned fields for a distinct atmospheric akin are attainable for “all time” from a distinct abstracts structure. The basal burden akin abstracts and apparent alteration abstracts will be stored in this order, which is referred to as “time series”.

Fields on accepted burden levels

A Zonal wind

A Meridional wind

A Geopotential Height

A Basal Temperature

A Absolute Vorticity

B Vertical Acceleration (1000 to 100 hPa only)

B Specific Clamminess (1000 to 300 hPa only)

17 levels: 1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150,100, 70, 50, 30, 20, 10

hPa

Surface alteration data

B Apparent Temperature B Precipitable Water

C Bark Temperature C Snow Depth

B 2 m Temperature B Snow Cover

B Apparent Burden C Precipitation (total & convective)

D Albedo B Beggarly About Humidity

C Surf. Sens. & Lat. Fluxes C Clay Wetness, Temperature

C Top of atmos. Fluxes C Apparent Runoff

B Zonal wind at 10 meters C Billow atom (hi, mid, low)

B Meridional ” ” ” C Billow forcing, bright sky fluxes

C Apparent Wind Accent C Force Beachcomber Drag

A Beggarly Sea Akin Press. B Max and Min temperature

6.3 Abstracts Access

(a) Quick attending CDROM output

We are creating a “Quick-look” abstracts abject that can fit into a almost baby (1 per year) cardinal of CDROMs. Currently two types of CDROMs are planned. The aboriginal would accommodate reanalysis articles for a distinct year (1 CDROM per year). The added blazon would be produced afterwards about 10 years and would accommodate time alternation of almost few variables. We accept this is an able way to amuse the requirements of best associates of the meteorological community, abounding of whom were consulted in the alertness of the achievement list. Added reanalysis advice and called achievement is additionally attainable online by internet (http://wesley.wwb.noaa.gov/reanalysis.html). The afterward is the plan for the aboriginal blazon of CDROMs.

00Z and 12Z analyses:

U, V, temp. at 850, 500, 200 hPa

geopotential acme 1000, 850, 700, 500, 300, 200 hPa

(sea akin burden can acquired from aloft fields)

surface pressure

omega at 500 hPa

precipitable water

temperature at 2 m

specific clamminess at 2 m

U, V at 10 m

RH at 500, 200 hPa

Daily averaged analyses:

zonal, meridional wind stress

net short/long beachcomber alteration at surface

precipitation

latent/sensible calefaction flux

Model OLR

downward abbreviate beachcomber alteration at surface

outgoing abbreviate beachcomber alteration at top

Tmin, Tmax (24 hour period)

skin temperature (includes SST)

snow (liquid baptize equivalent)

OOZ (isentropic) and 12Z (stratosphere) analyses:

height, temperature at 100, 50 and 20 hPa

U, V at 100, 50 and 20 hPa

potential vorticity on 3 surfaces (315, 330, 450 K)

U, V on 3 theta surfaces (315, 330, 450 K)

temperature on 3 theta surfaces (315, 330, 450 K)

All cross-sections (monthly averaged)

Monthly means, variances and covariances

Observed OLR

GrADS ascendancy and base files

Documentation:

BAMS cardboard (Office Agenda 401 with updates)

Office Agenda 388, (GRIB table of bounded definitions, documentation)

Miscellaneous

Total affidavit volume

Software to apprehend grib (PC-GrADS, wgrib)

(b) BAMS CDROM

The BAMS CDROM, the aboriginal anytime included with the Bulletin of the AMS, includes four types of files: climatologies (13-year boilerplate account fields), account fields (for anniversary of the 13 years), called circadian fields for 1993, and called empiric fields. All the fields accept been amid to a accordant latitude-longitude 2.5o resolution filigree (144 by 73 filigree points). The 17 burden levels are 1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200,150, 100, 70, 50, 30, 20, and 10 hPa for the climatology and account beggarly fields, and a subset of 5 levels (850, 700, 500, 200, and 30 hPa) for circadian values. There are added distinct akin fields (e.g., precipitation), and isentropic abeyant vorticity (IPV) on 11 isentropic levels (650, 550, 450, 400, 350, 330, 315, 300, 290, 280, and 270K) for the account fields, and 3 called levels (450, 330, and 315 K) for the circadian fields.

Because of the accumbent and vertical interpolation, it is recommended that these fields not be acclimated for account studies, which about crave admission to the aboriginal data. Z, U, V, T, MSLP are of blazon A (analysis capricious is acerb afflicted by empiric data); W, RH, Q, PWAT, U10, V10, T2M, IPV can be advised of blazon B (although there are empiric abstracts that anon affects the amount of the variable, the archetypal additionally has a absolute able admission on the assay value); best added variables are of blazon C (indicating that there are no observations anon affecting the variable, so that it is acquired abandoned from the archetypal fields affected by the abstracts assimilation to abide abutting to the atmosphere. Users of the diabatic heating fields (“HEATCL” file) should agenda that these abstracts were adapted from sigma akin to burden akin afterwards banausic averaging. The about-face action is not exact and the action may aftereffect in ambiguous values, decidedly abreast the surface.

All of the abstracts on this CDROM are stored in GRIdded Bifold (“GRIB”) which is a arranged bifold architecture and appropriately are not anon readable. However, two simple and able software bales are included that acquiesce users to appearance and dispense the abstracts on this CDROM and to ameliorate the abstracts so that users can acceptation the abstracts into their own appliance software. These software bales are “GrADS” and “wgrib”; capacity on how to use these applications, which crave no programming, are begin on the CDROM. For users who ambition to accept a quick-look at maps of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis CDROM, a menu-driven “demo” affairs that can affectation best of the fields on this CDROM has been included.

The afterward fields are included in the account and climatological book directories. The * indicates they are additionally included in the circadian (1993) agenda file. With the barring of the aboriginal 7, these are distinct akin fields.

Z Geopotential acme (gpm)*

U u wind (m s-1)*

V v wind (m s-1)*

T Temperature (K)*

W Burden vertical acceleration (Pa s-1)* (500 hPa only)

Q Spec clamminess (kg kg-1) *

PWAT Precipitable baptize (kg m-2)*

MSLP Burden bargain to MSL (Pa)*

CPRATE Convective precipitation amount (kg m-2 s-1)*

CSDLFSFC Bright sky bottomward connected beachcomber alteration (W m-2)

CSDSFSFC Bright sky bottomward abbreviate beachcomber alteration (W m-2)

CSULFSFC Bright sky advancement connected beachcomber alteration (W m-2)

CSUSFTOA Bright sky advancement abbreviate beachcomber alteration at top of atmosphere (W m-2)

CSUSFSFC Bright sky advancement abbreviate beachcomber alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

DSWRFSFC Bottomward connected beachcomber radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

DSWRFTOA Bottomward abbreviate beachcomber radiation alteration at top of atmosphere (W m-2)* DSWRFSFC Bottomward abbreviate beachcomber radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)*

ICEC Ice absorption (ice=1; no ice=0) (1/0)

LHTFL Abeyant calefaction alteration (W m-2)*

PRATE Absolute Precipitation amount (kg m-2 s-1)

RUNOFF Runoff (kg m-2)*

SFCR Apparent acerbity (m)

SHTFL Alive calefaction alteration (W m-2)*

SOILW10 Volumetric clay damp agreeable 0-10 cm band (fraction)*

SOILW200 Volumetric clay damp agreeable at 10-200 cm band (fraction)*

Q2M Specific clamminess at 2 m aloft arena (kg kg-1)*

HCLDCOV Hi-cloud awning (percent)

MCLDCOV Middle-cloud awning (percent)

LCLDCOV Low-cloud awning (percent)

TSFC Bark Temperature (K)*

T2M Temperature at 2 m aloft arena (K)*

UGWD Zonal Force beachcomber accent (N m-2)*

UFLX Zonal basal of drive alteration (N m-2)*

U10M u wind at 10 m aloft arena (m s-1)*

ULWRFTOA Advancement connected beachcomber radiation alteration at top of the atmosphere OLR (W m-2)*

ULWRFSFC Advancement connected beachcomber radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)*

USWRFTOA Advancement abbreviate beachcomber radiation alteration at top of the atmosphere (W m-2)*

USWRFSFC Advancement abbreviate beachcomber radiation alteration at the apparent (W m-2)

VGWD Meridional force beachcomber accent (N m-2)*

VFLX Meridional basal of drive alteration (N m-2)*

V10M v wind at 10 m aloft arena (m s-1)*

The afterward apparatus of the calefaction and damp account are abandoned attainable for the 13 year climatology (17 burden levels):

LRGHR Ample calibration abstract heating amount (K s-1)

CNVHR Abysmal convective heating amount (K s-1)

SHAHR Bank convective heating amount (K s-1)

VDFHR Vertical circulation heating amount (K s-1)

SWHR Shortwave radiative heating amount (K s-1)

LWHR Longwave radiative heating amount (K s-1)

The isentropic abeyant vorticity is attainable in the account beggarly (11levels) and 1993 circadian (3 levels):

IPV Isentropic Abeyant Vorticity (m2 s-1 kg-1)

The anchored fields (type D) included are:

OROG Orography (m) (surface elevations in meters on a 2.5 x 2.5 amount grid)

MASK Land-sea mask, 1 for land, 0 for sea (useful to affectation out acreage or ocean values).

The empiric fields (in the “OBSERVED” directory) included are:

OBS93OLR Circadian Approachable Long-wave Radiation for 1993 (W m-2)

OBSMNOLR Account agency Approachable Long-wave Radiation (W m-2)

GPCPRAIN GPCP estimated condensate rates

NCEPRAIN Xie-Arkin estimated condensate rates

MRGDRAIN Schemm estimated condensate rates

JAGRAIN Jaeger (1976) precipitation climatology

LWRAIN Legates-Willmott (1990) precipitation climatology

For the precipitation analyses and climatologies that are included, all ethics are bidding in units of “kg m-2 s-1” to bout the archetypal forecasts. To catechumen to units of “mm day-1”, accumulate the ethics by “86400”.

Measurements of approachable longwave radiation (OLR) are acquired from the Avant-garde Absolute Aerial Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the NOAA arctic orbiting aircraft (Gruber and Krueger, 1984). The abstracts units are watts per aboveboard beat and anniversary amount represents the areal boilerplate OLR alteration for a 2.5 x 2.5 amount lat/lon “box”. The observations of OLR during the 1979-1994 time aeon that are included on this CDROM are abandoned from the “afternoon” satellite, i.e. one which observes at the equator abreast 0230/1430 LST. It should be acclaimed that ample celebratory time alluvion occurs during the lifetime of the “afternoon” arctic orbiting satellites, and celebratory times can be up to 5 hours afterwards against the end of a satellites lifetime compared to the antecedent barrage celebratory time.

The Xie-Arkin precipitation assay (Xie and Arkin, 1996) is acquired in a two-stage action from account raingauge observations and several estimates based on accessory data. First, the accessory estimates are accumulated application a abounding boilerplate area the weights are proportional to the estimated errors of the assorted estimates. This abounding boilerplate is again alloyed with an assay of barometer observations over acreage and with observations from atoll gauges over the ocean. In general, barometer ethics are acclimated wherever available.

The alloyed precipitation dataset for 1979 – 1992, able by Jae Kyung E. Schemm, was generated by accumulation empiric account absolute precipitation abstracts from the apple apparent base climatology (Spangler and Jenne 1990) from NCAR and estimated amphibian precipitation from the MSU abstracts (Spencer, 1993). The base abstracts were amid to a resolution of 2.5 amount longitude/latitude by averaging base ethics aural a 200 km ambit with weights proportional to the changed of aboveboard ambit (Schemm et al. 1992). An attack was fabricated to ascendancy the affection of the dataset by removing base abstracts advertisement absolute precipitation amounts over 1000 mm. The MSU estimates were buried for sea ice contagion by removing abstracts with account totals greater than 900 mm in regions poleward of 50 degrees latitude.

The All-around Precipitation Climatology Activity (GPCP) which is administered by the All-around Activity and Baptize Aeon Experiment (GEWEX) has produced a account beggarly 2.5 amount gridded precipitation abstracts set for the aeon July 1987 through December 1994 (December, 1987 is missing). This abstracts set has been produced by aggregate barometer and bittersweet and bake accessory estimates of precipitation. While the direct microwave-based precipitation estimates are added authentic than IR-based estimates, the bake estimates ache from bargain banausic sampling (twice-daily) about to the IR (8-times daily) due to the arctic apogee of the aircraft that abode the SSM/I instruments (most of the IR abstracts are from geostationary satellites). Thus, an acclimation action has been developed that attempts to amalgamate the strengths of these two estimates, i.e. added accurateness of the bake accumulated with bigger banausic sampling of the IR. The acclimation action is an adjustment of beforehand assignment by Huffman et al. (1995) and consists of accomplish that aboriginal abolish the biases in bittersweet estimates by adjusting to ancillary bake estimates of precipitation. The bake estimates are acquired from the SSM/I apparatus aboard the Defense Meteorological Accessory Affairs (DMSP) alternation of satellites and advance a drop archetypal for estimates over acreage and an discharge archetypal for over ocean estimates. The final assay footfall adjusts the alloyed accessory abstracts to the barometer observations and combines them application weights that depend on the estimated bounded absurdity of anniversary field. The barometer abstracts are analyses from the All-around Precipitation Climatology Centre and reflect about 6,700 gauges which accept been anxiously affection controlled. This is a new abstracts set and we appeal that users accommodate comments to Arnold Gruber, Manager of the GPCP at [email protected] For added advice about the All-around Precipitation Climatology Activity see the GPCP Home Page on the World-Wide Web (WWW): http://orbit-net.nesdis.noaa.gov/gpcp/

The two almost abiding climatologies that are on this CDROM, namely Jaeger (1976) and Legates and Willmott (1990), are based on barometer abstracts over acreage and estimates over the oceans. In the Jaeger climatology, abstracts were accumulated from abreast precipitation atlases over land. Over the oceans, Jaeger amid digitized ethics from abandoned analyzed abstracts from the U. S. Marine Climatic Atlas, and adapted the amphibian condensate estimates to crop an approximate all-around anniversary beggarly of 1000 mm. Legates and Willmott activated aggregate corrections to the barometer ethics over acreage (to actual for dehydration and wind catchment problems). Over the oceans, they congenital the estimates of Dorman and Bourke (1978, 1981) who estimated account condensate from abbreviated ascertainment letters for “present weather” from ships.

(c) CDAS

The Reanalysis Activity originated with the abstraction of assuming a “post analysis” with a Altitude Abstracts Assimilation Arrangement (CDAS), which would abide arctic into the future. In 1990, Profs. Mark Cane and Julia Nogués-Paegle of the Advisory Committee appropriate that a absolute connected reanalysis would be added advantageous than the CDAS alone. The development of the reanalysis arrangement was again started and became the better basal of the project. It is bright that the aggregate of reanalysis for the past, and the CDAS into the future, both application the aforementioned arctic system, will be abundant added attainable to advisers than either basal alone.

The CDAS is performed aural 3 canicule of the end of the month, with the aforementioned software as the reanalysis. This allows time to abduction the aggregate of any delayed data, and serves as the base for the bearing of the account Altitude Diagnostics Bulletin of CPC. As acclaimed afore our affairs accommodate a added appearance of the CDAS/Reanalysis to alpha ancient in 1997, afterwards the aboriginal appearance is completed. In the added phase, the Reanalysis-2 will be performed with a 1998 avant-garde system, accompanying with a agnate CDAS-2 into the future. Such reanalyses would again be again every bristles years or so application the best avant-garde systems and the added recovered abstracts from the past. The CDAS-1, however, will be connected into the accountable approaching in acclimation to advance the longest constant abstracts assimilation artefact possible. Accustomed that the CDAS-1 will become beneath big-ticket with time, it may be achievable to accede active a anchored ascertainment arrangement for allegory with the accepted reanalysis, which has ample variations in the celebratory systems.

(d) Reanalysis Athenaeum at NCAR, CDC, NCDC

Full copies of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis annal are amid at the National Center For Atmospheric Assay (NCAR) and the National Climatic Abstracts Center (NCDC) while called articles in NetCDF architecture are attainable from CDC. Abundant descriptions of the articles attainable at anniversary of these sites are begin at the afterward internet addresses:

NCAR: http://www.scd.ucar.edu/dss/pub/reanalysis/index.html

NCDC: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov

CDC: http://www.cdc.noaa.gov:80/cdc/reanalysis

A abrupt description of the value-added reanalysis articles provided by NCAR and CDC to users is accustomed below.

NCAR provides added than 20 altered types of abstracts articles from the reanalysis, archetypal runs and archetypal forecasts. These articles are authentic in agreement of the NCAR annal names, concrete variables, resolutions and media accumulator size. On-line affidavit includes a “Data Artefact Description” (e.g. abstracts formats, abstracts book types, CDROM information, abundant lists of all variables, etc.), a “Data Annal Summary” (e.g. tables of abstracts availability by book type, projected timelines, etc.), and a “Data Users Home Page” (e.g. advice on software, a botheration list, a adviser to accessing reanalysis data, abstracts acclimation information, affairs for authoritative reanalysis abstracts subsets and reanalysis FAQ’s).

CDC maintains a netCDF-based internet attainable subset of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis abstracts products. On-line affidavit (at the abode above) includes the accepted activity status, the abstracts inventory/specifications (e.g. description of the abstracts on-line at CDC, blueprint for netCDF files including admeasurement estimates), a library of accordant software (e.g. netopen FORTRAN library, CRDtools, FERRET, Freud, MATLAB) and an cyberbanking album of acquired reanalysis products.

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