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Standard Form Of Polynomial Function Definition 1 Things Nobody Told You About Standard Form Of Polynomial Function Definition


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Design reclaim and IP-based architectonics are accustomed architectonics practices enabling fast affiliation of large-scale, high-complexity systems. But while silicon abeyant keeps convalescent through bulge shrinks, designs meant for reclaim cannot advantage these abstruse advances due to their durably authentic micro-architecture. In this cardboard we present a architectonics alignment based on high-level amalgam that allows retargeting anatomic IPs in the anatomy of C programs to technology optimized RTL implementations. We will betrayal after-effects that appearance that this admission can annihilate the accepted accommodation of architectonics affection adjoin architectonics time imposed by architectonics reclaim strategies, acquiescent optimal implementations in absolute abbreviate time.

1. Introduction

As architectonics complication increases, architectonics reclaim has become a binding admission to accumulate new architectonics assignment to humanly addressable sizes. To adeptness boilerplate adoption, a lot of analysis and industry efforts were bare to abode the aloft obstacles on the aisle of an able and applicable reclaim methodology. However, several apropos still abide with absolute reclaim approaches[1]: 1/ architectonics designed-for-reuse apparatus is difficult, 2/ accessible reusable apparatus may not bear the appropriate performance, 3/ reusable apparatus may be essentially bigger than a basic that was tailored to the design’s specific technology.

By definition, the RTL (Register Alteration Level) antecedent is annals authentic and models the bare “clouds of logic” aural these annals bounds. The architectonics abstracts paths are crafted based on the adapted alarm abundance and ambition technology. If the new technology is faster, it may be accessible to abate breadth by allotment architectures for anatomic units that are beneath aggressively optimized for performance. Retargeting to a slower technology (for instance for prototyping an ASIC architectonics on an FPGA) is generally adamantine aback the fastest accessible architectures may accept already been alleged for all anatomic units that are in the analytical path. In either case, the advance in either breadth or achievement is appreciably limited.

Current IP descriptions are hard-coded micro-architectures consistent from a set of three absolute audible architectonics constraints. 1/ Behavioral constraints ascertain what should be performed by the IP. 2/ Architectural constraints ascertain how the IP should behave with commendations to added blocks in a system. 3/ Technology constraints ascertain what can be able technologywise and what assets are accessible to do so.

Unarguably, RTL descriptions are a binding architectonics for cyberbanking architectonics automation flows. But a cogent check is the abridgement of a bright break amid the behavioral, architectural and technology acute factors in the final representation. Should one of these architectonics factors change and the IP description becomes suboptimal at best and abstract at worse. Once accomplishing decisions are committed in the anatomy of an RTL model, there is no arbor back. Important decisions such as leveraging accelerated multipliers in FPGAs or affording a dual-port anamnesis on ASIC cannot be modified. Conceptually, all-encompassing parameterization of the archetypal with anxiously accounting affidavit could affluence the IP modification process, but in practice, this becomes a complicated assignment abstinent all the allowances of a reclaim methodology.

The proposed alignment recognizes the absolute attributes of behavior, architectonics and technology as architectonics constraints by administration a apple-pie break amid the three. We advantage high-level amalgam techniques [2][3] to interactively assay accomplishing scenarios based on anatomic and technology requirements. The scenarios are again akin adjoin the architectural goals such as performance, breadth or power.

The breeze finer has three inputs – one for anniversary blazon of coercion – and through a amalgam process, produces a technology optimized IP description at the RT-Level (Figure 1). The architectural and technology constraints are toolspecific amalgam directives. The anatomic ascribe is in ANSI C [4], as it would be accounting by an algorithm designer, i.e., with no capacity of timing or concurrency, and does not await proprietary accent extensions. The ascribe blueprint is fast to simulate and requires alone a C compiler. This amalgam alignment delivers after-effects commensurable to hand-coded RTL but with a ample beneath architectonics time.

There are abounding advantages to application authentic ANSI C as an ascribe language:

Figure 1

RTL implementations are produced from the authentic ANSI C blueprint based on architectural requirements (performance/area/power) and ambition technology (ASIC/FPGA/clock frequency). Architectonics decisions are fabricated by the designer, but implemented by the amalgam tool. Interactive acknowledgment provided by amalgam enables the artist to added assay and clarify the architectonics of the design.

2. High-Level Synthesis

In this section, we will altercate how high-level amalgam helps transitioning from a absolutely anatomic C description to a technology and architectonics specific RTL implementation. At the centre of this transformation, amalgam directives board a apparatus to specify aerial akin decisions on how the architectonics communicates with the alfresco world, how abstracts is stored and how accompaniment is exploited to admission the adapted performance.

Functional C specification

The coding appearance acclimated for anatomic blueprint is apparent C that provides a consecutive accomplishing of the behaviour after any angle of timing or concurrency. Both the syntax and the semantics of the C accent are absolutely preserved. This breadth provides a abrupt overview of how the behaviour and the accouterments interface is authentic as able-bodied as appearance issues that charge to be taken into annual to aerate the allowances of the proposed architectonics reclaim strategy. A added abundant description of this coding appearance can be begin in [5]. Compound abstracts types such as classes, structs and arrays are additionally accurate for synthesis. Furthermore, parameterization through C templates is additionally supported. As apparent in [8] this aggregate of classes and templates provides a able apparatus facilitating architectonics re-use. Once developed, templatized altar can be specialized to altered bit-widths and sizes. This is a axiological affection to board anatomic adaptability in our high-level reclaim flow.

Interface Synthesis

Interface amalgam converts the way the C action communicates with the alfresco world. There are a cardinal of architectural transformations that booty place:

Loop Transformations

Loop pipelining provides a way to admission the throughput of a bend (or abbreviating its all-embracing latency) by initiating the (i 1)th abundance of the bend afore the ith abundance has completed. Overlapping the beheading of consecutive iterations of a bend exploits accompaniment beyond bend iterations. The cardinal of cycles amid iterations of the bend is alleged the admission interval. In abounding cases bend pipelining may advance the adeptness appliance appropriately accretion the performance/ breadth metric of the design.

Loop unrolling exposes accompaniment that exists beyond altered consecutive iterations of a bend by partially or absolutely unrolling the loop. In some cases, fractional unrolling may additionally be acclimated in a accommodating way with anamnesis mapping and interface amalgam to admission the able bandwidth for abstracts transfer. For example, unrolling may betrayal the achievability of accessing of alike and odd elements of an arrangement as one chat back it is mapped to memory.

Scheduling and Allocation

Scheduling and allocation is the amalgam agent that optimizes the designs with the accustomed alarm aeon directive, aeon and adeptness constraints that are either absolutely provided by the user or adumbrated by interface amalgam directives, variable/array mapping directives and bend pipelining/unrolling directives. Scheduling/allocation accept the adeptness to baddest amid combinational, consecutive and pipelined apparatus that apparatus the operations in the algorithm. The aloft transformations acquiesce autograph the C blueprint in a way that does not charge to bury appearance of the adapted architectonics in the source.

3. Case Study

In this breadth we present after-effects accomplished with the proposed reclaim alignment for a video processing unit. The high-level amalgam apparatus acclimated for the purpose of this absorption is Catapult C Amalgam [9]. The affection of after-effects accomplished with this apparatus [10] is a binding claim in the accident of deploying the proposed admission in a assembly environment. In this analysis we are attractive at reusing an IP aural alteration technology, interfaces and micro-architectural specifications. The aim of this analysis is to highlight how the proposed “functional reuse” alignment allows adapting to such alteration requirements.

Horizontal Scaling

Horizontal ascent is appropriate for DVB-T/h.264 streams to restore pixel squareness, so that eyewitness sees annular circles and aboveboard squares. In the H.264 accepted document, a ambit of accustomed pixel aspect ratios is defined. For instance, if antecedent account had a pixel aspect arrangement of 16:11 and affectation pixels are square, 11/16 accumbent ascent will restore pixel squareness and acquiesce absolute representation, as apparent in the bulk below. The ambition affectation may accept non-rectangular pixels, in which case the appropriate ascent is acquired as a multiplication of the two aspect ratios.


A set of the appropriate ascent coefficients ranges from 3/4 (slight downscaling) to 8/3 (substantial upscaling). The admission taken is based on the Lagrangian polynomials and does not use tables to abundance the coefficients. The consistent ambit is bigger but has abundant greater adaptability in allotment altered ascent ratios. To awning all the appropriate ratios, cubic departure algorithm was choosen. To reconstruct average pixels, a cubic ambit is adapted on a sliding added of four neghboring pixels. A row of N pixels is adapted to M pixels, breadth s = M/N is a ascent coefficient.


The ascent block has two parts: coefficients adding and bend control. Coefficients adding is beeline forward, the bend ascendancy is little bit added complex. In adjustment to abutment both upsampling and downsampling, the bend is consistently common M times, breadth M is a cardinal of achievement pixels. At anniversary iteration, a new ascribe sample is apprehend if active butt accomplished (or exceeded) 1 at the antecedent iteration. If active butt is beneath 1 at the alpha of the iteration, an achievement pixel is generated and the butt is incremented. Thus, the algorithm is able to skip both approximation coefficients adding and achievement sample generation. The above is appropriate for upscaling, back the aforementioned set of approximation coefficients may accomplish added again one achievement pixel, the after is appropriate for downscaling, back achievement filigree footfall is bigger again 1 and assertive iterations may accomplish no achievement pixels.

The C Code

The breadth beneath shows cogent portions of the C archetypal of the accumbent scaler. For bit-accurate modelling we use the Algorithm C Datatypes library [6][7] which provides both arbitrary-length accumulation and fixed-point datatypes. This simple archetype gives a acceptable overview of the adaptability offered by C , through the use of classes, pointers, arrow arithmetic, loops, codicillary statements, etc…

Listing 1

4. Reusing anatomic IP on altered technologies

Where RTL carefully combines functionality, technology and architecture, our breeze proposes a apple-pie break amid these three notions. Here we accept assorted the technology belief and kept invariant the two others to investigate the acuteness of an IP to the ambition technology and to appraise the affluence of porting a anatomic IP to a new action with the proposed methodology

We actinic the aforementioned anatomic IP on 6 ASIC technologies: 180nm, 150nm, 130nm, 110nm, 90nm and 65nm. Bulk 2 plots the breadth of anniversary solution. The abate the geometry, the faster the operators; in aftereffect all-embracing after-effects are improved. This confirms how acute to the ambition action bulge a architectonics is.

Similarly, starting from the aforementioned antecedent code, we actinic the anatomic IP to 4 altered FPGAs, 2 low-power and 2 high-performance devices. Bulk 3 plots the activity abyss for anniversary accomplishing of the accumbent scaler. The appulse of the alleged FPGA technology is absolute visible. For a accustomed frequency, faster FPGAs can board added combinatorial logic. Accordingly the activity abyss can be decidedly bargain if the capabilities of the ambition accessories are appropriately exploited, as with the proposed high-level amalgam flow.

Figure 2

Figure 3

Within a accustomed functionality/architecture pair, there is acutely no “one-size-fits-all”. The bulk architecture, including the activity abyss and associated ascendancy is fundamentally technology dependant. Reusing a accustomed RTL bulk from one action to the abutting or from one FPGA ancestors to addition is a suboptimal approach. In comparison, the proposed breeze allows optimizing the IP based on the ambition technology, after chiral intervention.

5. Reusing anatomic IP with altered interface requirements

RTL and lower-level representations of IP hardcode interface behaviour in the source. In the ambience of reuse, this is not adorable as interface constraints are generally dictated by the arrangement in which the IP is integrated. This allotment of the absorption demonstrates the adaptability offered by the proposed breeze to actualize IP variants with altered interfaces.

The architectonics interface is authentic by the ancestor of the actinic action and a set of amalgam directives. The antecedent cipher defines which are the ports, their administration and the best abundance of abstracts which can alteration through them. Amalgam contraints are again acclimated to ascertain the bandwidth of the port, its agreement as able-bodied as clock, displace and accredit properties.

Since iInLen, iOutLen and fRatio are scalars anesthetized by value, they will be necessarily inputs to the design. The anchorage administration of anInArray and anOutArray is authentic by the C code. anInArray is an ascribe as the arrangement is alone apprehend and anOutArray is an achievement as it is alone accounting to. The C cipher additionally defines that a best of 20480 $.25 (MAX_ROW_SIZE x PixelType) are accepted to alteration through anniversary of those ports, but no acceptance is fabricated about the bandwith, agreement or abstracts rate.

Synthesis constraints can calmly be activated in the anatomy of Tcl directives or GUI operations to amalgamate assorted types of interfaces. For instance we could apprehend the architectonics to apprehend pixel from memory, or alternatively, to accept them as alive abstracts with alternative handshake. Interface Amalgam allows architectonics such interfaces, after modifying the antecedent and alone by modifying the constraints, authoritative IP retargeting acutely accessible and efficient. Listing 2 shows three sets of constraints acclimated to body altered architectonics interfaces.

Listing 2

With the proposed methodology, new interfaces can be instantly synthesized, substituting breadth and error-prone chiral conception of interface adapters.

6. Reusing anatomic IP with altered architectural requirements

The third focus of the absorption is to assay the ascendancy offered by the proposed breeze over the absolute micro-architectural accomplishing of the IP through design-space analysis capabilities.

The C antecedent description alone gives a anatomic specification. In alongside to the anatomic criteria, designers about accept micro-architectural claim apropos parallelism, abstracts rates, adeptness administration or alike adeptness consumption. In the proposed methodology, the requirements can be captured through amalgam constraints to body architecturally altered yet functionally agnate IP implementations. Here, we advised how designs with altered abstracts ante could be congenital and we abstinent the appulse of the abstracts bulk on area.

Figure 4

The departure allotment of the architectonics requires 5 multiplications to compute a result. A continuously active design, account inputs and bearing achievement every aeon (pipeline admission breach of 1) at 50MHz would accordingly charge 5 multipliers. An accomplishing accessing I/Os every two cycles at 100MHz would accept two cycles to accomplish 5 multiplications, which indicates a abstract minimum of 3 multipliers for this version. We additionally congenital solutions with abstracts ante of 1 admission every 3 and 4 cycles at 150 and 200MHz.

Figure 4 compares the after-effects acquired for the 4 variants on a 90nm ASIC technology. Absolute breadth is advised on the larboard duke arbor and the absolute cardinal multipliers is apparent on the appropriate axis. The cardinal of multipliers matches the abstract expectation. Fewer operators are used, and the high-level amalgam breeze is able to time-share big-ticket resources. Breadth for the absolutely pipelined accomplishing is bigger than the added solutions. While the bulk of anatomic argumentation is bargain in the solutions with added sharing, the appulse of a college alarm abundance armament added activity stages and introduces added registers. As a result, the added solutions accept rather commensurable area.

The proposed breeze allows across-the-board the design-space in a assorted automatic fashion, absolution designers assay assorted applicant architectures and accept the best applicant for specific requirements. In contrast, chiral modifications to IPs are acutely possible, but defeat the purpose the reclaim and abate its bulk essence. Clearly, high-level amalgam allows amid functionality from technology and architectural aspects, adorning the absorption of reuse.

7. Conclusion

A atypical anatomic reclaim breeze based on C modelling techniques accompanying with high-level amalgam technology was presented. Back time burden and amount issues don’t admittance the access of bequest designs in a reclaim flow, architectonics access is traded adjoin schedule. The proposed breeze promotes reclaim at the anatomic akin as against to the RTlevel and builds on the apple-pie break of behaviour, architectonics and technology. After-effects acutely authenticate that anatomic blueprint in C can be actinic to fundamentally altered technology-optimized RTL architectures accouterment a fast and able reclaim methodology.

8. References

[1] Margarida F. Jacome and Helvio P. Peixoto. A Survey of Digital Architectonics Reuse. IEEE Architectonics & Test of Computers. Volume: 18, Issue 3. May-June 2001. Pages: 98-107.

[2] John P. Elliott. Understanding Behavioral Synthesis: A Practical Guide to High-Level Design. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

[3] R. Walker and R. Camposano. A Survey of High-Level Amalgam Systems. Kluwer Academic Pub- lishers, Boston, MA, 1991.

[4] Bjarne Stroustrup. The C Programming Language. 3rd edition. Addison-Wesley

[5] Andres Takach, Peter Gutberlet and Simon Waters. Proceeding of the Formal Architectonics Languages Conference. September 2001.

[6] Andres Takach, Simon Waters and Peter Gutberlet. “Fast bit-accurate C datatypes for anatomic arrangement analysis and synthesis”, FDL’2004.

[7] AC Datatypes,

[8] Sergio R. Ramirez, Object Oriented Programming for Digital Design, DVCon’2006

[9] Catapult C Synthesis, Coach Graphics,

[10] Fabrice Baray, Henri Michel, Pascal Urard and Andres Takach. “C Amalgam Alignment for Implementing DSP Algorithms”, GSPx 2004

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