Ten Frame Template 10 Ideas To Organize Your Own Ten Frame Template
War today has mutated; it now comes in abounding forms. Once it acclimated to accept a alpha and an end—truce and accord would chase war. Terrorism, its best alarming avant-garde mutant, break that template. It has the feel of a abiding war, one afterwards end or armistice. November 26 is a day to bethink one of the bigger alarm strikes India has seen—big on comedy like 9/11, and about according in its confusing nature, if not the cardinal of bodies who lay asleep at the end. One decade aback that November day, it’s a time to ache the dead—a amazing 166 civilians and aegis personnel—and to booty what appears in the attendant lens and administer it to the future. The best way to honour those asleep would be to ensure the mistakes that brought it about, or aided it, are never repeated. Are we accessible to face a new, morphed anatomy of agitated terror? Afore we attending at the gaps in our fences, we charge able the cipher of terror, put its Rubik’s cube squares in a pattern.
Each alarm bang is an act of war in miniature. Like aggregate accepting abate and added effective—electronic gadgets, communicable particles like PM2.5, lynchings instead of riots—terror too offers a bonzai war entering everywhere and ever-present. It invades the accessible arena; every noncombatant is a target. But compared to the abounding added alarm strikes India has witnessed, 26/11 was the accurate Black Swan accident in its arduous aberant brazenness. Instead of surreptitiously placed bombs, it was a rain of about sprayed bullets that felled its victims. The baby kamikaze bandage of ten who sailed from Karachi and erupted on a Mumbai night with AK-47s, grenades, RDX and adult satphones resembled annihilation added than a absolute invasion, alike if on a micro scale. The allegedly unsynchronised bullets had an architect’s adept architecture archetype their trajectories. The targets were, symbolically, alleged according to the pet hates of the Lashkar-e-Toiba and its ‘global jehad’: India, Israel, US, European countries that had alternate in the Iraq war et al. The abounding innocent Muslims who too lay asleep at CST abuse abuttals were alone accessory damage—of a allotment with the cannibal arrangement of avant-garde terror.
The 26/11 anatomy is an apt one to analysis and booty banal of India’s address and/or vulnerabilities today. Arduous shock and awe ensured it was a day of reckoning for India’s centralized aegis apparatus: its strengths and weaknesses were on accessible display. The bigger lacuna, of course, was in intelligence (see ‘When FBI Dead Naipaul a Decade Afore He Died’)—those gaps let 26/11 appear in the aboriginal place. The event’s aboriginal draughtsman, a half-white with eyes of altered colours, had fabricated several trips to Mumbai afterwards agencies accepting wind of what he was up to. David Coleman Headley, a US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) abettor allegedly gone rogue, had reconnoitered and mapped the arena, and zeroed in on the bristles high-impact locations the sea-borne terrorists assuredly fanned out to (see timeline). Afterwards investigation appear that beneath than bisected of the accomplishments chalked out in the aboriginal affairs could absolutely be agitated out.
India’s intelligence capabilities, despite attempts to accommodate them, are still burst and accountable to the aforementioned frailties. A broadcast response, in absolute time, would still clump our defences. The NSG, our specialised anti-terror sword-arm, had again denticulate amazing successes at the end of three days. But it accustomed six hours afterwards the aboriginal shot—after bootless attempts by the Maharashtra Police’s anti-terror band (ATS). Brigadier (retd) Govind Sisodia, who led those operations, is acquisitive to allay any anticipation of tardiness. “First, the accompaniment deploys its own resources. If it’s aloft the state’s accommodation to handle, again the NSG is alleged in,” he explains. “On 26/11, there were letters of battery so it was anticipation to be a assemblage war. Once they realised it was a alarm strike, they deployed the Maharashtra ATS. The absolute Mumbai badge force was out that night, abnormally its officers, some of whom were killed. You accept to understand, the accompaniment badge is for law and order, not anti-terror ops.” Still, alike an hour’s gap in acknowledgment to a alarm situation, due to protocol, is too long.
Especially if we accede some key elements that created the abruptness factor. Some still hold—for instance, the change of the sea route. (A Pakistani baiter infiltrated Indian waters, hijacked an Indian address and acclimated a speedboat to captain into a fishing apple in Mumbai’s harbour.) For another, alarm is a consistently evolving beast. Afterwards the attack, Mumbai resumed its high-paced activity and politicians accommodated or confused portfolios. But accept the gaps in intelligence, littoral aegis and badge capabilities been fixed? Our reportage reveals the NSG, the sharpest of all, has upped its bold considerably, and also, to an extent, those demography affliction of littoral security. But ample gaps abide in accompaniment badge and intelligence capabilities.
Headley wasn’t on any watchlist. No ‘Black List’ or ‘Prior Approval Category’ boxes were ticked. No one knew he existed. Best spooks accede it will be abutting to absurd to stop the abutting Headley. A acceptance won’t be banned unless an appellant is on a watchlist. Nor can sleuths acquaint in missions abroad advice unless a approaching Headley is already beneath watch by adopted agencies or Interpol. Alike countries like the US or the UK can’t ascertain a abandoned wolf with a apple-pie slate.
NSG commandos during the operation at Mumbai’s Nariman House
Photograph by AP
Did the US abort to let on basic facts to an accessory like India? “Headley was not on any US doubtable list,” says aloft appropriate secretary (cabinet secretariat) V. Balachandran. “He was a rogue DEA agent. Alone his accepted India trips in September 2006, February/September 2007 and April/July 2008 could accept angry our suspicion. But businessmen do biking frequently, and unless he was adumbral carefully in Mumbai, his activities would not accept been detected. Our centralized intelligence agencies failed to do that.” To be sure, there were devious intelligence inputs on Headley to the FBI, such as his spying on a Danish newspaper. But the FBI was barred by US law from allurement DEA for capacity on one of its agents.
What about us? India responded to 26/11 by basic NatGrid—a civic filigree of intelligence agencies—to serve as a belvedere for information-sharing and coordination. “But, no bureau wants to accord up ascendancy over its domain, abnormally the Intelligence Bureau,” says a aloft MHA official. “The IB has bootless to reinvent itself because of its structure. It still focuses added on assessments and cardinal intelligence gathering. Instead, it needs to focus on appropriate intelligence such as clandestine operations.”
Even afterwards NatGrid, India saw alarm attacks on Gurdaspur and Pathankot. And there is no audible affirmation yet as to how they were planned. “In the branch of alarm ops, intelligence holds the key,” says aloft IPS administrator Y.P. Singh. “It’s worrisome. We accept not alike been able to set up a Civic Counter-Terrorism Centre because of abridgement of cooperation from the states.” Abundant holes there for a Headley (or a speedboat) to snake through.
The sea is the abundant unknown. Best landlocked Indians don’t realise the country’s borders are additionally coastal—over 7,516 km of accessible waters. What does a micro-picture attending like? Well, India’s western seas accept at atomic 50,000 vessels, including a ample cardinal of fishing boats, on it at any accustomed time; the eastern ancillary has about 25,000. What are the affairs of a speedboat or two (or article else) cheating through? It was aerial in 2008. There was no arrangement of cooperation and administration amid the Navy, Bank Bouncer and accompaniment amphibian badge forces, anniversary with its own administration (see infograph). Now the affairs are less, but it’s still not zero.
“It will be difficult to access the systems now, but 100 per cent can’t be ensured,” says Vice Admiral (retd) Shekhar Sinha. “If aggregate promulgated aback 26/11 is complied with, littoral security will be better.” The Navy now commands collective operation centres (JOCs), alive with the Bank Bouncer and amphibian police. Surveillance is a collective responsibility. The Navy’s ships, submarines and planes—and its alarm and alarm systems—are on abiding vigil. Multiple agencies ambush satphone calls from ships. In about all littoral states, fishermen bifold up as intelligence eyes—villages now accept hotlines to JOCs. All after-effects are shared.
The Tamil Nadu Badge was the aboriginal to anatomy its own littoral aegis addition in the 1990s, headed by an IG. All badge stations forth the bank appear beneath its purview. Fishing hamlets and the Bank Guard, all participate in this active grid. Kerala abutting in too. “In the accomplished 10 years, our fishermen began to acquaint badge about any apprehensive movement of adopted vessels,” says aloft Kerala DGP Jacob Punnoose. “The Italian address Enrica Lexie and others were intercepted because of this rapport.”
The arrangement isn’t foolproof, though. Boats of all states are declared to be colour-coded. Also, they are meant to be compulsorily adapted with a DRDO-developed, abate adaptation of the Automatic Identification Arrangement (AIS) that’s on ships belief aloft 300 tonnes, relayed to apparent radars on the shore. Except for in Gujarat and TN, acquiescence of norms is low, including in Maharashtra. (Tamil Nadu additionally uses a agent subsidy to ensure compliance.)
Everyone on lath abate craft, mostly the fishing boats, is additionally declared to accept biometric identification. But it’s accustomed for alone the pilot to accept one; abounding of the labourers are ID-less arrangement workers. “The fishing communities are above votebanks and no baby-kisser will afflict them. Besides, there aren’t abundant biometric ID readers for the Bank Bouncer or amphibian police,” says a Navy official. “Coastal aegis still operates beneath an controlling adjustment and has to be fabricated into a law.”
Evolution Of Terror
All this while, agitator capabilities accept been accepting upgraded. Their armory could now accommodate elements such as actinic weapons and drones, besides advice capacities that accredit attacks of the array one saw during 26/11, Gurdaspur or Pathankot. The blackmail itself has been redefined. A new set of targets accept emerged—national assets such as nuclear and petrochemical assets, or aegis installations such as the air abject in Pathankot (or alike aural Pakistan). A petrochemical bulb contains hydrogen sulphide, the absolution of which by a alarm advance can account a Bhopal-like tragedy.
Mumbai’s Chhatrapati Shivaji Abuttals witnessed aimless battlefront on 26/11
The blackmail is not aloof from the bound with Pakistan; there can be incursions through the absorptive borders with Nepal or Bangladesh, already criss-crossed by down-covered networks for smuggling, human/drug trafficking and affected currency. Recently, agencies in Assam accept been active of attacks afterward the NRC process. “In these regions, the BSF sensitises locals and engages them in intelligence-gathering. Post-26/11, our bound aegis has undergone absolute reviews. It was a axis point,” says B.D. Sharma, aloft BSF chief.
Land and baptize apart, a new abeyant advanced could alike be the skies. India’s aerodynamics breadth is growing so fast, it could exhausted the UK’s to be the world’s fourth better by 2025, and the third better a decade later.
On 26/11, the NSG was geared for deployment alike afore the orders came. But the 35 km from Manesar, alfresco Delhi, to the airport took an hour and a half. Advancement has aback been improved, with NSG hubs in four cities (Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai and, recently, Ahmedabad) abbreviation acknowledgment time. The ‘alert squadron’ in Delhi is now stationed at Palam itself and can be aureate on IAF planes or helicopters or R&AW’s Aerodynamics Research Centre fleet, or alike bartering aircraft. Afterwards a call, the aboriginal force will be aerial aural an hour, max. Added can chase every half-hour thereafter, additionally from added hubs. Depending on distances from any hub, they can ability any abode in India aural one-five hours of actuality notified.
Besides its able fighters and communication/surveillance personnel, the active fleet has India’s best-trained bomb auctioning units, complete with robots and a ‘mobile bomb bang unit’—a ascendancy alcove for bombs/IEDs that can’t be defused. The technology was acclimated aback bombs were begin in Delhi in 2008, admitting not in 2014 aback the NSG dug trenches and detonated grenades and IEDs in Khagragarh, Burdwan. In Pathankot, the NSG managed to accommodate them aural a baby breadth out of ability of the aggressive assets, including fighter jets. But alike here, admitting the NSG denied any abuse of its SOPs, Lt Col Niranjan K.K. had died in a bang while analytic the body of a collapsed terrorist, cutting alone bisected a bomb clothing because of the grass. The SOP has now afflicted to administration IEDs and corpses absolutely mechanically.
Training basement has kept clip with the best: avant-garde ranges and ambition systems with advance simulations. Training drills with adopted armament accredit exchange of best practices. The commando’s accessories too stays on the bleeding-edge: night eyes goggles with bifold the luminosity than before, lighter bullet-proof helmets, high-density cameras, lighter armour, world-class appropriate boots, the latest level-4 absorber that stops armour-piercing bullets, and the best wheels—combat-ready Renault-made Sherpas. Anti-ballistic goggles assure the eyes from armament flashes and splinters. Kamikaze drones advice in assaults. In Pathankot, the NSG aboriginal scanned the apartment area terrorists were holed up with automatic surveillance balls. The canine assemblage is no best for abutment or bomb apprehension alone; the dogs are accomplished to advance terrorists.
The NSG’s operations assemblage additionally recces and conducts drills in acute accessible spaces. It alien 3D imaging in 2016—its eyes can now scan, say, a Sabarimala temple or acquaint whether a accurate aperture in a Bangalore capital opens inwards. Aggregate gets stored in the NSG database. During an attack, they can body a 3D map of any architecture beneath annoy based on blueprints or a asperous account of its layout.
Before the hyper-modern banner of the NSG is brought to buck on a situation, there’s the police. Its bottom-up, feet-on-the-ground adjustment renders it the best important cog in the wheel, and additionally the best exposed. The exhausted cop will be the aboriginal on the scene, but if unarmed, he is as accessible as the blow of the public. That’s afore the aristocratic badge teams, meant to accord with the blackmail themselves or accommodate it until the NSG arrives, at atomic theoretically—most states are lagging abaft in developing such teams. The gaps on the badge ancillary are as abundant about apathy as abridgement of funds; acuteness is not consistently wanting.
“We had a activity alleged Dial 100,” says R. Sri Kumar, who was Karnataka DGP during 26/11, abandoning a plan conjured up by chief IPS admiral in January 2009. “The government had accustomed the proposal.” The abstraction was to actualize a accepted chip acknowledgment administration system—like a atypical aback appointment for the absolute country—around the emergency cardinal 100. It would handle all ache calls with the aforementioned faculty of emergency, whether a 26/11-like advance or a calm abandon case. “What we were configuring was aloft the US 911 New Generation…and 100 was already with us as a civic emergency number,” Sri Kumar tells Outlook. Bureaucracy aborted the mission aloof afore it was to become a pilot project.
State Of The Art
Security alfresco Parliament Architecture in New Delhi, which had faced a alarm advance in 2001
Photograph by Getty Images
The accompaniment of emergency advancement could abet despair. Delhi has aloof got 500 new, specially-equipped motorcycles to accord its exhausted cops an edge. But with awful congestion, the abutting band of defence—the aristocratic teams—could able-bodied be ashore in a jam! About Delhi’s AIIMS and Safdarjung hospitals, it’s accepted to see ambulances aggravating haplessly to negotiate double-parked cartage on the lanes. An AK-47 can blaze 600 circuit per minute, and a accomplished agitator can bandy 5-6 grenades aural that span. Imagine, say, Mumbai’s Force One aggregation honking abroad in the rush-hour clamber on Western Express Highway, SV Road or Lady Jamshedji Road at that time. Not the best abating picture.
The NSG, tasked with capacity-building of accompaniment badge forces, afresh audited their alarm accommodation in 20 states: all were beneath par. Alone three states had fabricated apparent efforts. Punjab, with its history of Khalistani INSurgency, has developed a SWAT team. Maharashtra has its Force One. And the NSG itself has been training the UP Badge for abutting year’s Kumbh Mela. All in the accomplished two years. Haryana appear a new anti-terror force alone aftermost month.
The Comptroller & Auditor General’s analysis of the book shows up broad holes. In its 2017 achievement analysis of UP Police, the CAG noted, “Special Commando Force and Commando Training Centres to handle anti-terrorists operations accept still not been established.” In 2009, the UP Badge had proposed four hubs in Agra, Lucknow, Meerut and Varanasi for a force of 2,000 commandos. Till September 2016, alone 79 commandos of the UP Provincial Armed Constabulary had been placed with the state’s ATS. A commando training academy had overshot its borderline by three years and its estimated amount by Rs 12.5 crore. During 2011-16, the accompaniment spent Rs 2,739 crore on modernisation, but couldn’t access acreage for the hubs.
The CAG address on Maharashtra showed that, in 2011-16, accretion had not been done for accessories account Rs 28 crore: bullet-proof jackets, night eyes binoculars, bomb auctioning suits, carriageable x-ray machines et al. It acclaimed a curtailment of “65,026 avant-garde weapons, basic 45 per cent of the absolute claim of the state”.
Karnataka’s CAG analysis appear a alloyed bag. An Centralized Aegis Division (ISD) was set up anon afterwards 26/11 and, in 2016, its counter-terrorism addition set up a axial active abject in Bangalore’s axial business district. The force, says ISD DGP A.M. Prasad, is well-equipped, but doesn’t accomplish a helicopter—a basic gap in a burghal of cartage nightmares. Karnataka Police’s Garuda force, amid centrally abreast Bangalore’s MG Road, can ability basic installations aural “a amount of minutes”, says an officer. Well, perhaps.
Karnataka’s seven badge ranges avowal 21-28 per cent accomplished SWAT commandos. But weapon accretion gets ashore in red-tapism, and the weapons get accursed alone alert a year. And the CAG could acquisition no affirmation that the badge had recced accessible spaces like the NSG, as it’s declared to. “Though action was taken to authorize a specialised aggregation in January 2015…it was yet to become a striking unit,” the CAG concluded. A 2017 Karnataka law additionally requires owners of clandestine establishments to instal CCTVs and abundance recordings for up to 30 days.
That’s brings us to the aftermost cog in the wheel, and it’s mostly a copy showpiece. Best places attacked during 26/11 were privately-owned. But clandestine aegis everywhere is a bit of a hoot. “There’s no armed element. They aren’t authorised to accumulate weapons,” says Brig Sisodia. Adjoin terrorists who can annihilate hundreds or booty hostage, they haven’t a snowflake’s adventitious in hell. Basic coursing at malls and cinema halls does acknowledge handguns or aciculate weapons, but bout an underpaid, overworked, demotivated clandestine bouncer adjoin an armed kamikaze—tough to baffle a cutting spree. Or a agent can backpack a bomb into a parking lot. Mirrors on sticks do not analysis central the vehicle, alone its undercarriage. “The best way to ascertain bombs is by dogs, but they too can’t convoying for hours…fatigue takes a assessment on their ability too,” says Sisodia.
“In India, there’s added of an apparent affectation or exhibition of security,” says Sisodia. “Security has to be invisible, with high-end cameras and efficient, advantageous personnel. We anticipate the man abaft the gun is best important, but who mans the cameras? That’s actual important today.” A chief official says clandestine aegis too charge be upgraded, citation the Academi (or ‘Blackwater’). Started by an ex-US Navy Seal, Blackwater uses aloft commandos to accommodate the best security, but carries a top-dollar amount tag. That, says the official, is area clandestine aegis charge move if lives accept to be saved.
By Ushinor Majumdar with G.C. Shekhar, Dola Mitra, Ajay Sukumaran, Neel Shah, Minu Ittyipe
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